Living things have basic needs, including food and water (ACSSU002)
The way objects move depends on a variety of factors, including their size and shape (ACSSU005)
Respond to questions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS014)
Engage in discussions about observations and use methods such as drawing to represent ideas (ACSIS233)
Share observations and ideas (ACSIS012)
Living things live in different places where their needs are met (ACSSU211)
Everyday materials can be physically changed in a variety of ways (ACSSU018)
Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be sensed (ACSSU020)
Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE021)
Respond to and pose questions, and make predictions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS024)
Through discussion, compare observations with predictions (ACSIS212)
Compare observations with those of others (ACSIS213)
Represent and communicate observations and ideas in a variety of ways such as oral and written language, drawing and role play (ACSIS029)
By the end of Year 1, students describe objects and events that they encounter in their everyday lives, and the effects of interacting with materials and objects. They identify a range of habitats. They describe changes to things in their local environment and suggest how science helps people care for environments.
Living things grow, change and have offspring similar to themselves (ACSSU030)
Different materials can be combined, including by mixing, for a particular purpose (ACSSU031)
Earth’s resources, including water, are used in a variety of ways (ACSSU032)
A push or a pull affects how an object moves or changes shape (ACSSU033)
Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE034)
Respond to and pose questions, and make predictions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS037)
Through discussion, compare observations with predictions (ACSIS214)
Compare observations with those of others (ACSIS041)
Represent and communicate observations and ideas in a variety of ways such as oral and written language, drawing and role play (ACSIS042)
By the end of Year 2, students describe changes to objects, materials and living things. They identify that certain materials and resources have different uses and describe examples of where science is used in people’s daily lives.
Students pose questions about their experiences and predict outcomes of investigations. They use informal measurements to make and compare observations. They follow instructions to record and represent their observations and communicate their ideas to others.
A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat (ACSSU046)
Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day (ACSSU048)
Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one object to another (ACSSU049)
Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE050)
Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of their actions (ACSHE051)
With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically and predict what might happen based on prior knowledge (ACSIS053)
Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings (ACSIS215)
Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and simple reports (ACSIS060)
By the end of Year 3, students use their understanding of the movement of the Earth, materials and the behaviour of heat to suggest explanations for everyday observations They describe features common to living things. They describe how they can use science investigations to respond to questions and identify where people use science knowledge in their lives.
Students use their experiences to pose questions and predict the outcomes of investigations. They make formal measurements and follow procedures to collect and present observations in a way that helps to answer the investigation questions. Students suggest possible reasons for their findings. They describe how safety and fairness were considered in their investigations. They use diagrams and other representations to communicate their ideas.
Earth’s surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human activity (ACSSU075)
Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct contact or from a distance (ACSSU076)
Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE061)
Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of their actions (ACSHE062)
With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically and predict what might happen based on prior knowledge (ACSIS064)
Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings (ACSIS216)
Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and simple reports (ACSIS071)
By the end of Year 4, students apply the observable properties of materials to explain how objects and materials can be used. They use contact and non-contact forces to describe interactions between objects. They discuss how natural and human processes cause changes to the Earth’s surface. They describe relationships that assist the survival of living things and sequence key stages in the life cycle of a plant or animal. They identify when science is used to ask questions and make predictions. They describe situations where science understanding can influence their own and others’ actions.
Students follow instructions to identify investigable questions about familiar contexts and predict likely outcomes from investigations. They discuss ways to conduct investigations and safely use equipment to make and record observations. They use provided tables and simple column graphs to organise their data and identify patterns in data. Students suggest explanations for observations and compare their findings with their predictions. They suggest reasons why their methods were fair or not. They complete simple reports to communicate their methods and findings.
Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted (ACSSU080)
Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by people from a range of cultures (ACSHE082)
Scientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community decisions (ACSHE217)
Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS088)
Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS091)
Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of ways, including multi-modal texts (ACSIS093)
By the end of Year 5, students classify substances according to their observable properties and behaviours. They explain everyday phenomena associated with the transfer of light. They describe the key features of our solar system. They analyse how the form of living things enables them to function in their environments. Students discuss how scientific developments have affected people’s lives and how science knowledge develops from many people’s contributions.
Students follow instructions to pose questions for investigation, predict what might happen when variables are changed, and plan investigation methods. They use equipment in ways that are safe and improve the accuracy of their observations. Students construct tables and graphs to organise data and identify patterns. They use patterns in their data to suggest explanations and refer to data when they report findings. They describe ways to improve the fairness of their methods and communicate their ideas, methods and findings using a range of text types.
Changes to materials can be reversible, such as melting, freezing, evaporating; or irreversible, such as burning and rusting (ACSSU095)
Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface (ACSSU096)
Energy from a variety of sources can be used to generate electricity (ACSSU219)
Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by people from a range of cultures (ACSHE099)
Scientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community decisions (ACSHE220)
Use equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS105)
Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS108)
Communicate ideas, explanations and processes in a variety of ways, including multi-modal texts (ACSIS110)
By the end of Year 6, students compare and classify different types of observable changes to materials. They analyse requirements for the transfer of electricity and describe how energy can be transformed from one form to another to generate electricity. They explain how natural events cause rapid change to the Earth’s surface. They describe and predict the effect of environmental changes on individual living things. Students explain how scientific knowledge is used in decision making and identify contributions to the development of science by people from a range of cultures.
Students follow procedures to develop investigable questions and design investigations into simple cause-and-effect relationships. They identify variables to be changed and measured and describe potential safety risks when planning methods. They collect, organise and interpret their data, identifying where improvements to their methods or research could improve the data. They describe and analyse relationships in data using graphic representations and construct multi-modal texts to communicate ideas, methods and findings.
Interactions between organisms can be described in terms of food chains and food webs; human activity can affect these interactions (ACSSU112)
Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques (ACSSU113)
Earth’s gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth (ACSSU118)
Science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines of science (ACSHE223)
People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in their occupations (ACSHE224)
Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS124)
By the end of Year 7, students describe techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They represent and predict the effects of unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravity, on motion. They explain how the relative positions of the Earth, sun and moon affect phenomena on Earth. They analyse how the sustainable use of resources depends on the way they are formed and cycle through Earth systems. They predict the effect of environmental changes on feeding relationships and classify and organise diverse organisms based on observable differences. Students describe situations where scientific knowledge from different science disciplines has been used to solve a real-world problem. They explain how the solution was viewed by, and impacted on, different groups in society.
Students identify questions that can be investigated scientifically. They plan fair experimental methods, identifying variables to be changed and measured. They select equipment that improves fairness and accuracy and describe how they considered safety. Students draw on evidence to support their conclusions. They summarise data from different sources, describe trends and refer to the quality of their data when suggesting improvements to their methods. They communicate their ideas, methods and findings using scientific language and appropriate representations.
Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (ACSSU150)
Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances (ACSSU225)
Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (ACSSU153)
Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and causes change within systems (ACSSU155)
Science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines of science (ACSHE226)
People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in their occupations (ACSHE227)
Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS139)
By the end of Year 8, students compare physical and chemical changes and use the particle model to explain and predict the properties and behaviours of substances. They identify different forms of energy and describe how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They compare processes of rock formation, including the time scales involved. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. Students examine the different science knowledge used in occupations. They explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea and describe situations in which scientists collaborated to generate solutions to contemporary problems.
Students identify and construct questions and problems that they can investigate scientifically. They consider safety and ethics when planning investigations, including designing field or experimental methods. They identify variables to be changed, measured and controlled. Students construct representations of their data to reveal and analyse patterns and trends, and use these when justifying their conclusions. They explain how modifications to methods could improve the quality of their data and apply their own scientific knowledge and investigation findings to evaluate claims made by others. They use appropriate language and representations to communicate science ideas, methods and findings in a range of text types.
Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (ACSSU179)
Energy transfer through different mediums can be explained using wave and particle models (ACSSU182)
Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164)
By the end of Year 9, students explain chemical processes and natural radioactivity in terms of atoms and energy transfers and describe examples of important chemical reactions. They describe models of energy transfer and apply these to explain phenomena. They explain global features and events in terms of geological processes and timescales. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to interdependencies, energy transfers and flows of matter. They describe social and technological factors that have influenced scientific developments and predict how future applications of science and technology may affect people’s lives.
Students design questions that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They design methods that include the control and accurate measurement of variables and systematic collection of data and describe how they considered ethics and safety. They analyse trends in data, identify relationships between variables and reveal inconsistencies in results. They analyse their methods and the quality of their data, and explain specific actions to improve the quality of their evidence. They evaluate others’ methods and explanations from a scientific perspective and use appropriate language and representations when communicating their findings and ideas to specific audiences.
Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates (ACSSU187)
Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (ACSSU189)
The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (ACSSU229)
Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS198)
By the end of Year 10, students analyse how the periodic table organises elements and use it to make predictions about the properties of elements. They explain how chemical reactions are used to produce particular products and how different factors influence the rate of reactions. They explain the concept of energy conservation and represent energy transfer and transformation within systems. They apply relationships between force, mass and acceleration to predict changes in the motion of objects. Students describe and analyse interactions and cycles within and between Earth’s spheres. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the processes that underpin heredity and evolution. Students analyse how the models and theories they use have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review.
Students develop questions and hypotheses and independently design and improve appropriate methods of investigation, including field work and laboratory experimentation. They explain how they have considered reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in their methods and identify where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data. When analysing data, selecting evidence and developing and justifying conclusions, they identify alternative explanations for findings and explain any sources of uncertainty. Students evaluate the validity and reliability of claims made in secondary sources with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited. They construct evidence-based arguments and select appropriate representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes.