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  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share...

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Spanish language and culture.

Spanish language learning and use

The initial focus is on listening to the sounds and patterns of Spanish through language-rich activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Repetition and recycling help children to identify frequently used words and simple phrases and to recognise the purpose of simple texts. Children identify and use non-verbal communication strategies employed by Spanish speakers in greetings and other social interactions and experiment with simple responses to prompts and cues. As they progress to using Spanish for functions such as asking and answering questions, responding to instructions, singing songs, and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks, they begin to notice that language can behave differently in different situations and that Spanish speakers communicate in some ways that are different from their own. They practise and repeat sounds (such as j, ll and r) which differ in Spanish from those in English. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using Spanish for purposeful interaction, for example, asking for help or expressing surprise.

The transition from spoken to written language is scaffolded through shared exploration of simple texts. Children progress from supported comprehension and use of a small number of personally significant sight words to more elaborated simple texts. Writing skills progress from labelling pictures and copying words to constructing simple texts using familiar vocabulary and structures. As children learn to adjust language to suit different purposes and situations, they begin to learn the important role of culture in shaping language use.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Spanish to interact with one another and with the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Information and communication technologies (ICT) resources provide additional access to Spanish language and cultural experience, connecting learners’ social worlds with those of Spanish-speaking children in different contexts.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, visual and written texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas and join in stories, songs, play and simple conversations. Written and digital texts include stories, wall charts, Big Books and teacher-produced materials such as games, captions and flashcards. Writing skills progress from tracing and copying high-frequency words to independently writing modelled words and sentences (for example, greeting cards or labels) and co-creating shared resources such as word walls or storybooks.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners become familiar with the sound systems of the Spanish language, including pronunciation, rhythm, pitch and stress. They learn to pronounce individual letters and letter combinations, and recognise and use the intonation patterns that distinguish between statements, questions and exclamations. They use simple basic sentence structures and learn to write single words and simple phrases. They become familiar with the idea of grammatical gender and plural forms. They discuss differences and similarities they notice between Spanish and their first language(s) and culture(s), as well as how they feel when they hear or use Spanish and how they view different languages and the people who speak them. They begin to develop curiosity around the idea of difference, culture and communication.

Level of support

Learning is supported through the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling and monitoring by the teacher, provision of rich and varied sources of input, opportunities for recycling and reviewing, and regular cues, feedback, response and encouragement. At this stage, play and imaginative activities, music, movement and familiar routines provide the essential scaffolding for language development.

The role of English

While learners are encouraged to use Spanish whenever possible, with the teacher providing rich and varied language input, English is used as a medium of instruction, and for explanation and discussion. This allows learners to talk about differences and similarities they notice between Spanish and their own language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions, and to express their reactions to the experience of learning and using an additional language.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with teacher and peers to introduce self, greet and farewell others and describe friends, family and favourite things
[Key concepts: self, family, friendship, belonging; Key processes: greeting, introducing, participating]
(ACLSPC109)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in guided group activities and simple transactions such as games, performances, songs and rhymes, using modelled repetitive language
[Key concepts: play, action, exchange; Key processes: participating, performing, turn-taking]
(ACLSPC110)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Recognise and respond to classroom interactions such as opening and closing of lessons, transition activities, answering simple questions and following classroom instructions
[Key concepts: routines, roles; Key processes: following instructions, responding]
(ACLSPC111)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate specific words and expressions in simple print, spoken and digital texts such as charts, lists, songs, rhymes and stories, and use information to complete guided spoken and written tasks
[Key concepts: literacy, numeracy; Key processes: locating, selecting, sorting]
(ACLSPC112)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Present factual information about self, family, friends and everyday objects using simple statements and support materials
[Key concepts: self, family, favourite; Key processes: naming, labelling, showing]
(ACLSPC113)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Participate in shared reading, or viewing or listening to short imaginative texts and respond through mime, drawing and dance
[Key concepts: character, story, imagination; Key processes: acting, expressing, choral reading]
(ACLSPC114)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Create and perform simple imaginative texts that involve repetitive language, experimenting with sound patterns, rhymes and non-verbal forms of expression
[Key concepts: rhythm, expression, performance; Key processes: chanting, drawing, singing, dancing]
(ACLSPC115)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate frequently used words and simple phrases using visual cues and resources such as word lists
[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key processes: identifying, noticing]
(ACLSPC116)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create simple print or digital texts that use both Spanish and English, such as labels, captions, wall charts and picture dictionaries
[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: labelling, captioning]
(ACLSPC117)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Recognise what aspects of songs, stories, rhymes and pictures from Spanish-speaking cultures may look or feel similar or different to own language(s) and culture(s)
[Key concepts: language, culture, difference; Key processes: noticing, comparing]
(ACLSPC118)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise themselves as belonging to groups, for example, ‘my friends’, ‘my class’, ‘my school’, ‘my family’ and ‘my community’
[Key concepts: self, identity, family, community; Key processes: noticing, describing]
(ACLSPC119)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise and reproduce the sounds and rhythms of simple spoken Spanish, noticing how they are produced and how they are represented in writing
[Key concepts: phonic awareness, pronunciation; Key processes: reading aloud, listening, mimicking]
(ACLSPU120)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Notice and apply grammatical rules such as those relating to gender, simple verb forms and definite articles when describing people, places, things and relationships
[Key concepts: syntax, word order; Key processes: naming, noticing patterns]
(ACLSPU121)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Understand that language is organised as ‘text’ and recognise features of familiar texts such as charts, labels, rhymes and stories
[Key concepts: text, meaning, structure; Key processes: recognising, identifying]
(ACLSPU122)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that in Spanish different words and language forms are used to address and greet people according to relationship, context and time of day
[Key concepts: language as social practice, context; Key processes: noticing, comparing]
(ACLSPU123)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that the English and Spanish languages borrow words from each other
[Key concept: word borrowing; Key processes: noticing, listing]
(ACLSPU124)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Spanish is one of many languages spoken around the world and in Australia
[Key concepts: multiculturalism, culture; Key processes: mapping, discussing]
(ACLSPU125)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Notice some differences and similarities in cultural practices between Spanish speakers and Australian-English speakers
[Key concepts: behaviours, cultural similarities and differences; Key processes: noticing, asking questions, making connections]
(ACLSPU126)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with teachers and peers through action-related talk and play. They introduce themselves and exchange greetings such as Buenos días/tardes/noches, and farewells (for example, hasta pronto). They use simple repetitive language and respond to simple instructions when participating in classroom routines, games and shared activities, for example, Sal de aquí, Párate en la puerta. They use visual, non-verbal and contextual cues such as intonation, gestures and facial expressions to help make meaning, and reproduce distinctive sounds of the Spanish language, including the sounds for the letters ll, ñ, rr/r g/j, c and y. Students identify specific words and expressions in simple texts, such as names of people, places or objects. They convey factual information about self, family, friends and favourite things at word and simple sentence level, for example, Mi casa es grande, Nuestro ordenador es pequeño, Tu celular es nuevo. They respond to and create simple spoken and written texts using modelled examples and formulaic language. Students use gender (for example, el pastel/la torta), simple verb forms (for example, estudiar, comer, dormir),...

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By the end of Year 2, students interact with teachers and peers through action-related talk and play. They introduce themselves and exchange greetings such as Buenos días/tardes/noches, and farewells (for example, hasta pronto). They use simple repetitive language and respond to simple instructions when participating in classroom routines, games and shared activities, for example, Sal de aquí, Párate en la puerta. They use visual, non-verbal and contextual cues such as intonation, gestures and facial expressions to help make meaning, and reproduce distinctive sounds of the Spanish language, including the sounds for the letters ll, ñ, rr/r g/j, c and y. Students identify specific words and expressions in simple texts, such as names of people, places or objects. They convey factual information about self, family, friends and favourite things at word and simple sentence level, for example, Mi casa es grande, Nuestro ordenador es pequeño, Tu celular es nuevo. They respond to and create simple spoken and written texts using modelled examples and formulaic language. Students use gender (for example, el pastel/la torta), simple verb forms (for example, estudiar, comer, dormir), definite articles and vocabulary related to familiar environments to describe people, places and things. Students translate frequently used words and simple phrases, using visual cues and word lists (for example, clase, zapatos, camisa, teléfono/celular) and create simple print and digital texts in both Spanish and English. They identify similarities and differences between English and Spanish language and culture in songs, stories, rhymes and pictures.

Students know that Spanish uses the same alphabet as English when written, except for ñ as in mañana and España. They identify features of familiar texts and give examples of how different titles are used to address people in different situations (for example, Doña Josefa, Don José, Tía). They identify Spanish as one of many languages spoken in Australia and give examples of words that English and Spanish have borrowed from each other such as chat, ‘tortilla’, ‘fiesta’. Students identify differences and similarities between their own and others’ languages and cultures.

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Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups, including the Spanish class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in English, such as writing in the Roman alphabet, and this assists to some degree in learning Spanish. They benefit from varied, activity-...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups, including the Spanish class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in English, such as writing in the Roman alphabet, and this assists to some degree in learning Spanish. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Spanish language learning and use

The development of oral proficiency at this stage continues to rely on rich language input in different modes, including examples of different accents and varieties of Spanish in the Spanish-speaking world. Children engage in a lot of listening and responding by actions, building active listening and comprehension skills. Language is authentic with some modification, involving familiar vocabulary and simple structures. Children are supported to expand their use of the language in familiar interactions and situations, such as exchanging simple ideas and information, negotiating predictable activities, and participating in shared tasks, performances and play. They continue to build vocabulary that can be adapted for different purposes, and to control simple grammatical forms with some accuracy. Attention is focused on grammar, vocabulary building, pronunciation, and non-verbal and cultural dimensions of language use through purposeful communicative activities and experiences.

Contexts of interaction

The contexts in which learners interact are primarily local: the classroom, school, home and community, with some access to wider communities of Spanish speakers and resources via digital technology.

Texts and resources

Children develop literacy skills and textual knowledge through supported interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts (for example, picture books, stories, puppet plays, songs and games) develop the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. Texts such as negotiated classroom rules, lists of planned activities, and family or class profiles show how language is used to ‘get things done’. Learners may have access to resources developed for children in Spanish-speaking countries, such as children’s television programs, storybooks or web pages, as a way of developing cultural knowledge.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners recognise and use intonation patterns to express different meanings. They apply their knowledge of sound–letter associations to spell new words. They recognise and use elements of grammar such as gender and singular/plural forms, simple verb forms, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns and prepositions to understand and to create simple spoken and written texts. Learning Spanish contributes to learners’ general literacy development and to the process of making sense of their worlds that characterises this stage of their development. As they encounter varieties of Spanish language and cultures represented in the Spanish-speaking world, they make comparisons with their own language(s) and culture(s) and consider their own ways of communicating. This leads to exploring concepts of identity, commonality and difference, and to thinking about cultural and linguistic diversity and about what it means to speak more than one language in the contemporary world.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves extensive support. Learners are given a variety of opportunities to apply their Spanish language knowledge in meaningful activities in order to build communicative skills, confidence and fluency. Tasks are carefully scaffolded. Teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete the task; make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection.

The role of English

Learners are supported to use Spanish as much as possible for classroom routines, social interaction, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. English is used for discussion, explanation and reflection, enabling learners to develop a language (a metalanguage) for sharing ideas about linguistic and cultural systems and experience. Using both Spanish and English in the classroom develops awareness of what it means to be bilingual.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with teacher and peers to exchange information about aspects of their personal world such as school, home, everyday routines and favourite pastimes
[Key concepts: routine, home; Key processes: questioning, responding, describing]
(ACLSPC127)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in collaborative tasks and experiences such as creating and presenting a display or performance and following procedures and instructions
[Key concept: collaboration; Key processes: contributing, exchanging]
(ACLSPC128)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Participate in everyday classroom exchanges such as responding to simple questions, asking permission, requesting help, asking how to say or write something, asking for repetition and complimenting others
[Key concepts: cooperation, school life; Key processes: questioning, requesting, suggesting]
(ACLSPC129)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Gather and share information from peers and from texts relating to the Spanish-speaking world and to areas such as home, school, routines, responsibilities and interests
[Key concepts: routine, events; Key processes: identifying, recording, questioning]
(ACLSPC130)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present information about personal or shared interests or experiences, using simple descriptive language and supporting resources such as tables, lists and images
[Key concepts: experience, representation, culture; Key processes: describing, presenting]
(ACLSPC131)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Read, view and listen to stories, children’s television programs and songs and make simple statements about characters, themes and reactions
[Key concepts: character, plot; Key processes: comparing, responding, experimenting]
(ACLSPC132)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create short imaginative texts such as dialogues and stories using modelled language
[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: experimenting, performing, creating]
(ACLSPC133)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Compare and explain simple texts or expressions in both Spanish and English, such as street signs, advertisements, sayings and greetings
[Key concepts: gist, meaning; Key processes: matching, translating, comparing]
(ACLSPC134)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts such as action games, songs, stories or photo captions, and identify and discuss aspects of culture represented in the texts
[Key concepts: similarities, differences; Key processes: comparing, explaining]
(ACLSPC135)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Interact in Spanish using simple phrases and expressions, recognising how language reflects cultural practices
[Key concepts: communication, difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, reflecting]
(ACLSPC136)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Explore own sense of identity, for example, by discussing membership of groups such as a club, a country or a language-speaking community, and how these elements of identity are reflected in language use
[Key concepts: belonging, membership; Key processes: describing, representing]
(ACLSPC137)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Experiment with Spanish pronunciation, intonation and spelling rules, including patterns associated with questions and statements
[Key concepts: intonation, spelling, accent; Key processes: discriminating sounds, recognising words]
(ACLSPU138)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Notice and apply elements of Spanish grammar such as gender, singular/plural forms, adjectives, adverbs, verb forms, pronouns and prepositions in simple spoken, written and digital texts
[Key concepts: grammatical rules, patterns of language, gender; Key processes: recognising, applying]
(ACLSPU139)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking

Recognise that texts such as stories, emails and dialogues have particular characteristic features, and notice similarities and differences between some Spanish and English versions
[Key concepts: language features, structure; Key processes: observing, comparing]
(ACLSPU140)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Understand that language use varies according to the age and relationship of participants
[Key concepts: register, status; Key processes: observing, explaining]
(ACLSPU141)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that languages change with use over time and according to context
[Key concepts: influence, change, exchange; Key processes: identifying, classifying, comparing]
(ACLSPU142)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Identify the variety of languages represented in the school, local community and general Australian population
[Key concepts: community, diversity; Key processes: mapping, grouping]
(ACLSPU143)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Discuss examples of ways in which the cultures of Spanish speakers influence everyday interactions such as expressions of respect and affection
[Key concepts: culture as process and practice, values; Key processes: noticing, comparing, connecting]
(ACLSPU144)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact with teachers and peers in classroom routines, action-related talk and play. They use formulaic expressions when participating in classroom routines and collaborative activities, such as complimenting others (for example, El bolso de Susana es hermoso), requesting help (for example, Necesito ayuda con mi bicicleta) and seeking permission such as ¿Puedo ir al salón de informática?. They interpret visual, non-verbal and contextual cues such as intonation, gestures and facial expressions to help make meaning. They make statements using the present tense and the present + infinitive form (for example, quiero cantar, quiero salir) about aspects of their lives such as school, home and everyday routines (for example, Mi escuela está cerca de mi casa, Me gusta la clase de español). They approximate Spanish pronunciation and intonation in simple statements. Students gather information relating to own and others’ lifestyles and present information at sentence level in simple texts. They make simple statements about characters such as La bruja es amable, themes and their own reactions such as El payaso está triste in response to imaginative...

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By the end of Year 4, students interact with teachers and peers in classroom routines, action-related talk and play. They use formulaic expressions when participating in classroom routines and collaborative activities, such as complimenting others (for example, El bolso de Susana es hermoso), requesting help (for example, Necesito ayuda con mi bicicleta) and seeking permission such as ¿Puedo ir al salón de informática?. They interpret visual, non-verbal and contextual cues such as intonation, gestures and facial expressions to help make meaning. They make statements using the present tense and the present + infinitive form (for example, quiero cantar, quiero salir) about aspects of their lives such as school, home and everyday routines (for example, Mi escuela está cerca de mi casa, Me gusta la clase de español). They approximate Spanish pronunciation and intonation in simple statements. Students gather information relating to own and others’ lifestyles and present information at sentence level in simple texts. They make simple statements about characters such as La bruja es amable, themes and their own reactions such as El payaso está triste in response to imaginative texts. They use modelled sentence structures to compose short original texts using conjunctions such as y, o, porque and pero, and prepositions such as a, con, de and en. Students use vocabulary related to school, home and lifestyles (for example, divertido, alto, gordo, grande). They use possessive adjectives (for example, mi libro, nuestro coche), adjectives (for example, extraño, fantástico), singular and plural forms (for example, el árbol, la cafetería, las pelotas, los mensajes) and regular verbs (for example, cantar, correr, vivir) in simple constructions. When writing, they apply punctuation and capitalisation rules. They translate short texts, using word lists and dictionaries and create simple bilingual texts. They use simple phrases and expressions that reflect cultural practices, for example, diminutives such as Sarita, gatico.

Students differentiate between statements, commands, exclamations and questions according to intonation. They identify similarities and differences between some Spanish and English texts, recognising that familiar texts have characteristic features. They give examples of how language use varies according to the age, gender and relationship of participants, and of ways that languages change over time. They.name some of the many languages that are spoken in Australia, and identify languages represented in the class and local community. They identify ways in which the cultures of Spanish speakers influence everyday interactions, involving greetings such as hugging or kissing on both cheeks and polite expressions such as ¿Me pasa el ipad por favor?

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Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Spanish. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Spanish. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining greater awareness of the world around them, and noticing additional similarities and differences between Spanish language and culture and their own.

Spanish language learning and use

Learners use Spanish with peers and the teacher for a widening range of purposes: exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, performing, and responding to experiences and resources from the Spanish-speaking world. Learners’ ability to communicate is developing in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity. As they draw on a growing range of vocabulary resources and grammatical structures, their pronunciation, intonation and phrasing steadily improve and they use an increasing range of body language, such as hand gestures, used by Spanish speakers. Shared tasks provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. Focused attention on language structures and systems, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted at least in part in Spanish. Learners use digital media and social networks to support their learning in increasingly independent ways, such as exchanging resources and information with one another, with young people of the same age in Spanish-speaking communities, and with students in other settings who are also learning Spanish. In doing this, they may access music and media resources, maintain blogs and web pages, and use online forums.

Oracy development at this level includes active listening to input from different sources (including different varieties of Spanish) and extending conversational and interactional skills. This involves initiating and sustaining conversations, turn-taking, ‘reading’ language for cultural and contextual meaning, building on others’ contributions, making appropriate responses and adjustments, and engaging in debate and discussion. Individual and group oral presentation and performance skills are developed through researching and organising information, and structuring and rehearsing presentations. Literacy development involves more independent interaction with a wider range of texts. Learners draw on their growing grammatical and lexical resources to compose and comprehend more complex language. They use a range of cues and decoding strategies to assist comprehension and to make connections between ideas and language within and between texts. They write more accurately and fluently for a wider range of purposes and audiences.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Spanish with one another and with the teacher for an increasing range of purposes. They have some access to Spanish speakers and cultural experiences in wider contexts and communities through the use of ICT. At this level, language development and use are typically incorporated into collaborative and interactive tasks, games and learning activities. Learners begin to use more Spanish spontaneously when interacting with one another.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of spoken and written texts, including published texts such as readers, songs and computer games, as well as teacher-generated resources such as language games, exercises and presentations. In addition, learners have some access to Spanish language and culture through texts created for young people in Spanish-speaking communities, such as websites, stories, music clips, cartoons and television programs.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners use an increasing range of vocabulary, become more confident in terms of pronunciation and continue to build grammatical and textual knowledge. They apply phonic knowledge to unfamiliar language and notice the relationship between accents and stress or intonation. They use present, past and near future tenses to describe or locate actions. They use comparative forms and apply rules of agreement between subjects and verbs and between nouns and adjectives. They use appropriate verb forms and intonation patterns to exclaim, make a statement or ask a question. They develop a metalanguage to describe patterns, rules and variations in language structures. As they use Spanish to interact in different situations, learners develop an understanding of how language and culture influence each other. They recognise how language reflects cultural values and experiences and how grammatical forms and vocabulary choices affect the meaning that is made. This offers the opportunity for reflection on their own ways of communicating and using language, and also on personal and community identities, stereotypes and perspectives. Learners begin to experience and reflect on the challenges involved in moving between languages and different ways of making meaning.

Level of support

While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into task activity. Systematic feedback and review assist the interactive process of learning. Support includes provision of models, stimulus materials, scaffolded opportunities for reflection, and resources such as word charts, vocabulary lists, dictionaries and electronic reference materials. Learning tasks and activities take account of both learners’ current level of Spanish capability and their more general cognitive and social levels of development.

The role of English

While the use of Spanish in the classroom increases at this level, the use of English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and intercultural capability.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact using descriptive and expressive language to share interests, special celebrations and leisure activities, and to express feelings, state preferences and give opinions
[Key concepts: friendship, leisure, interests; Key processes: expressing, sharing, comparing]
(ACLSPC145)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Collaborate with peers to plan and conduct different elements of shared tasks, transactions or activities
[Key concept: cooperation; Key processes: planning, participating, making, transacting]
(ACLSPC146)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Interact in class activities and routines by asking and responding to questions, asking for clarification and making suggestions
[Key concepts: routine, responsibility; Key processes: participating, sharing, taking turns]
(ACLSPC147)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Listen to, view and read texts in order to identify aspects of life in Spanish-speaking contexts and communities
[Key concepts: lifestyle, diversity; Key processes: collating, connecting, comparing]
(ACLSPC148)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Present information about aspects of language and culture in the Spanish-speaking world for specific audiences, using diagrams, charts, timelines and guided reports
[Key concepts: lifestyle, people, places; Key processes: organising, informing]
(ACLSPC149)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Share and compare understandings and opinions about ideas encountered in imaginative Spanish-language texts such as works of art, fables, performances and television programs
[Key concepts: plot, idea, moral; Key processes: adapting, comparing, responding]
(ACLSPC150)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Produce a variety of texts such as scripted performances, raps and digital stories using imaginary characters, places, ideas and events
[Key concepts: imagination, drama; Key processes: performing, representing]
(ACLSPC151)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate simple texts that provide comparisons between cultural aspects of meaning-making in Spanish and English and note how language cannot always be directly translated
[Key concept: meaning; Key processes: translating, comparing, explaining]
(ACLSPC152)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create own bilingual texts and learning resources, such as displays, posters, word banks and glossaries for the classroom/school environment
[Key concepts: translation, explanation; Key processes: identifying, selecting, modifying]
(ACLSPC153)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Compare ways of communicating in particular Australian and Spanish-speaking contexts
[Key concepts: diversity, reaction; Key processes: observing, considering, reflecting,]
(ACLSPC154)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Discuss how it feels to interact in a different language, what they understand by ‘identity’, and whether learning Spanish has any effect on their sense of self
[Key concept: intracultural understanding; Key processes: identifying, describing]
(ACLSPC155)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Attend to the pronunciation of sounds and intonation patterns used in social interactions and apply writing conventions such as question and exclamation marks
[Key concepts: auditory discrimination, stress, intonation, punctuation; Key processes: listening, reading, recognising]
(ACLSPU156)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and use grammatical elements such as tenses, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs and noun-adjective agreements to construct simple texts for different purposes
[Key concepts: grammatical rules, patterns and irregularities; Key processes: applying rules, understanding, vocabulary building]
(ACLSPU157)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking

Identify how different Spanish texts such as comics, cartoons, magazines or emails use language in ways that create different effects
[Key concepts: genre, structure, audience; Key processes: noticing, explaining]
(ACLSPU158)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that language use varies according to the contexts of situation and culture
[Key concepts: levels of formality, language, identity, variation; Key processes: observing, comparing]
(ACLSPU159)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that the Spanish language constantly changes due to contact with other languages and the impact of new technologies
[Key concepts: language contact, digital media; Key processes: observing, identifying, classifying]
(ACLSPU160)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Recognise that the Spanish language has different forms, roles and functions in different contexts and communities
[Key concepts: diversity, language origins; Key processes: mapping, comparing, discussing]
(ACLSPU161)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Reflect on own language use at home, at school and in the community, considering how this may be interpreted by young Spanish speakers
[Key concepts: norms, standpoints; Key processes: observing, reflecting, comparing]
(ACLSPU162)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use written and spoken Spanish for classroom interactions, to carry out transactions and to share information about personal interests, relate experiences and express feelings. They use modelled sentence structures to ask and respond to questions (for example, ¿quién?/¿quiénes?, ¿por qué?¿por dónde? sí, por supuesto), seek clarification (for example, ¿Ella dice que apaguemos la computadora?) and give advice (for example, No debes comer tantos dulces). When interacting, students use appropriate pronunciation of Spanish-specific sounds such as ci/ca and ga/gi, and intonation patterns. They gather information relating to language and culture and present it in different formats. They describe characters, experiences and ideas encountered in texts, and create short imaginative texts using structured models and descriptive and expressive vocabulary (divertido, alto, gordo, grande). They use regular and common irregular verbs in present tense (for example, estudio español, voy a mi casa), simple past tense (for example, Ayer comí helado, Fueron a la cafetería) and near future (for example, Voy a ir a la playa, Vamos a comer frutas). Students use...

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By the end of Year 6, students use written and spoken Spanish for classroom interactions, to carry out transactions and to share information about personal interests, relate experiences and express feelings. They use modelled sentence structures to ask and respond to questions (for example, ¿quién?/¿quiénes?, ¿por qué?¿por dónde? sí, por supuesto), seek clarification (for example, ¿Ella dice que apaguemos la computadora?) and give advice (for example, No debes comer tantos dulces). When interacting, students use appropriate pronunciation of Spanish-specific sounds such as ci/ca and ga/gi, and intonation patterns. They gather information relating to language and culture and present it in different formats. They describe characters, experiences and ideas encountered in texts, and create short imaginative texts using structured models and descriptive and expressive vocabulary (divertido, alto, gordo, grande). They use regular and common irregular verbs in present tense (for example, estudio español, voy a mi casa), simple past tense (for example, Ayer comí helado, Fueron a la cafetería) and near future (for example, Voy a ir a la playa, Vamos a comer frutas). Students use pronouns (for example, él/ella nosotros/as ellos/ellas, usted/ustedes/ vosotros/as), prepositions (for example, debajo de, por, al lado de, cerca de), adverbs (for example, muy, poco, bien, mal, lentamente), agreement of nouns and adjectives (for example, gente simpática, juegos divertidos ), and adverbs to mark time (for example, hoy, ayer, mañana, ya, todavía) and place (for example, dentro de, encima de, a la izquierda, a la derecha). They apply rules of punctuation such as question and exclamation marks (for example, ¿cuándo?, ¡cuidado!) and accents (for example, sofá, árbol, música). They translate and interpret short texts, identifying aspects of the Spanish language and culture that are similar or different to their own and create bilingual texts for the classroom and school community. They describe their own experiences of using Spanish and identify ways in which learning and using Spanish' may impact on their own identity.

Students know that Spanish has its own rules for pronunciation and grammar and that language use must be adjusted to suit different contexts, situations and relationships (for example, ¡Hasta pronto Doña Clara! ¡Adiós chicos!). They use metalanguage to explain basic features of language, texts and grammar, making connections with English terms they are familiar with such as ‘verb’, ‘adverb’, ‘noun’ and ‘agreement’. Students identify Spanish as a global language and describe the distribution of communities of Spanish speakers in different countries and regions. They identify ways that languages change through contact with other languages and due to new technologies, and give examples of Spanish words used in English (for example, ‘patio’, ‘chocolate’) and words used in Spanish that are borrowed from other languages (for example, chofer, carné, tenis, golf, corner, kiwi, parking, gol, tiquet, chao ). They reflect on the language they use at home, at school and in the community and identify how young Spanish speakers would use language in the same contexts.

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Spanish, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts, and to communicate with some assistance about their immediate world and that of Spain and other Spanish...

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Spanish, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts, and to communicate with some assistance about their immediate world and that of Spain and other Spanish-speaking communities. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in reflecting on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved.

Spanish language learning and use

Spanish is used for classroom interactions and transactions, for creating and maintaining a class dynamic, for explaining and practising language forms, and for developing cultural understanding. Learners work both collaboratively and independently in Spanish, exploring a variety of texts (such as online forums, songs/raps, debates and role-plays) with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They share language knowledge and resources in small groups to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and increasingly generate original language. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences. They plan, draft and present imaginative, informative and persuasive texts; design interactive events and collaborative tasks; and participate in discussions and games. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and editing to improve structure and clarify meaning.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for learning and using Spanish remains the language classroom; however, there may be increasing opportunities for interaction with peers in a range of Spanish-speaking communities through the use of technologies and social networks, partner-school arrangements and community connections. Learners have access to additional Spanish-language resources through websites, social media and radio streaming.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a variety of texts specifically designed for learning Spanish in schools, such as textbooks, videos, readers and online resources. They also access materials created for Spanish-speaking communities, such as films (subtitled), websites, magazines and advertisements, providing opportunities to make connections between texts and cultural contexts, perspectives and experiences.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners expand their range of vocabulary beyond their immediate world and familiar experiences. They make clearer distinctions between stress and intonation patterns to increase fluency and enhance expression. They develop broader grammatical knowledge, using present, past and future tenses of regular and irregular verbs to describe and sequence events. They recognise and apply characteristic features of additional types of texts. Learners develop an awareness of the diversity of languages and cultures in the Spanish-speaking world. They analyse more critically and imaginatively the relationship between language and culture, identifying cultural references in texts and considering how language reflects and influences perspectives and values. They make comparisons between their own language(s) and Spanish, and reflect on the complexities involved in moving between languages and cultural systems. They monitor and reflect on their own intercultural experience and capability as language learners, and identify their own personal and community practices that reflect cultural influences.

Level of support

Opportunities to review and consolidate prior learning are balanced against provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and connections. Learners are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experiences in different contexts.

The role of English

While Spanish is used in more extended and elaborated ways for classroom interactions and routines, task participation and structured discussion, English is used for more complex elements of instruction and for more substantive discussion, analysis and reflection. Learners continue to develop a metalanguage for thinking and talking about language, culture and identity and the experience of learning and using Spanish.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Participate in a range of spoken, written and online interactions, for example, exchanging views and experiences, apologising, thanking, inviting or congratulating
[Key concepts: relationship, experience, milestone, community; Key processes: experiencing, responding, connecting]
(ACLSPC163)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Engage in collaborative tasks, activities and experiences that involve negotiation, making arrangements, problem-solving and transacting
[Key concepts: event, experience; Key processes: negotiating, transacting, inviting]
(ACLSPC164)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Engage in class activities and discussions through asking and responding to open-ended questions, and expressing or rejecting points of view
[Key concepts: values, negotiation, classroom culture; Key processes: inviting, eliciting, explaining]
(ACLSPC165)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Analyse and summarise key ideas and information from a variety of texts on a range of topics
[Key concepts: data, event; Key processes: researching, analysing, summarising]
(ACLSPC166)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Organise and present information and ideas on different topics, issues or events, comparing perspectives and experiences
[Key concepts: perspective, youth issues; Key processes: reporting, managing information]
(ACLSPC167)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Respond to a variety of imaginative texts by expressing opinions and comparing the ways in which people, places and experiences are represented
[Key concepts: fact, fiction, humour; Key processes: comparing, responding, expressing]
(ACLSPC168)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Create texts about imagined characters, contexts and experiences to engage and entertain others
[Key concepts: amusement, entertainment; Key processes: describing, expressing feelings, entertaining]
(ACLSPC169)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate and interpret a range of texts, compare own version with others’ and discuss reasons for any variations
[Key concepts: equivalence, culture; Key processes: translating, interpreting, comparing]
(ACLSPC170)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Produce short bilingual texts such as digital stories, comics and blogs, and discuss how language reflects culture
[Key concept: interpretation; Key processes: comparing, explaining, experimenting]
(ACLSPC171)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on intercultural communication, commenting on perceived similarities and differences in language used and on aspects of culture
[Key concepts: similarity, difference, assumption; Key processes: monitoring, reflecting, questioning]
(ACLSPC172)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Identify significant people, places, events and influences in own and others’ lives and explain why they are important to their sense of identity
[Key concepts: biography, community; Key processes: analysing, reflecting]
(ACLSPC173)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Develop more consistent control of the rhythms and intonation of spoken Spanish and of the features of the writing system
[Key concepts: pitch, stress, rhythm, intonation; Key process: noticing emphasis]
(ACLSPU174)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and control grammatical structures such as different forms of the past tense, regular and irregular verbs, interrogative and imperative moods, and conjunctions in a range of familiar types of texts
[Key concepts: parts of speech, tense, mood; Key processes: analysing, categorising, distinguishing]
(ACLSPU175)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse the structure and organisation of a range of texts, particularly those related to social and informative media, for example, blogs, advertisements and text messages
[Key concepts: register, comparison; Key process: analysing]
(ACLSPU176)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Examine how elements of communication, including gestures, facial expressions and use of silence, vary according to context, situation and relationships across languages and cultures
[Key concepts: body language, personal space, status; Key processes: observing, comparing, analysing]
(ACLSPU177)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand the dynamic nature of languages
[Key concepts: change, influence, evolution, globalisation; Key processes: observing, reflecting, explaining]
(ACLSPU178)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Investigate the nature and extent of Spanish language use in both Australian and global contexts
[Key concepts: community, arts, cuisine; Key processes: researching, analysing, classifying]
(ACLSPU179)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Reflect on how cultural values and ideas are embedded in language and influence intercultural interactions and experiences
[Key concepts: interpretation, cultural expression; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, analysing]
(ACLSPU180)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Spanish for classroom interactions, to carry out transactions and to exchange views and experiences with peers and others in a range of contexts. They use rehearsed and spontaneous language to give and follow instructions and engage in discussions, such as expressing or rejecting points of view (for example, ¿Estás de acuerdo?, verdadero/falso, ¿qué te parece?, ¿cuándo?, ¿cómo?, ¿por qué?). They apply appropriate pronunciation and rhythm in spoken Spanish to a range of sentence types (for example, ¿Nos vamos?, ¡Nos vamos!, Pasó por aquí/Paso por aquí), and use interrogative and imperative moods (for example, ¿Has comido? ¡Abre la puerta!). They locate, summarise and analyse information and ideas on topics of interest from a range of texts, and communicate information, different perspectives and their own opinions such as a mí me parece…, using different modes of presentation. They describe their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing opinions (for example, en mi opinión, personalmente yo prefiero, estoy de acuerdo), stating preferences (for example, después de pensarlo, yo…, prefiero más bien...es buena...

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By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Spanish for classroom interactions, to carry out transactions and to exchange views and experiences with peers and others in a range of contexts. They use rehearsed and spontaneous language to give and follow instructions and engage in discussions, such as expressing or rejecting points of view (for example, ¿Estás de acuerdo?, verdadero/falso, ¿qué te parece?, ¿cuándo?, ¿cómo?, ¿por qué?). They apply appropriate pronunciation and rhythm in spoken Spanish to a range of sentence types (for example, ¿Nos vamos?, ¡Nos vamos!, Pasó por aquí/Paso por aquí), and use interrogative and imperative moods (for example, ¿Has comido? ¡Abre la puerta!). They locate, summarise and analyse information and ideas on topics of interest from a range of texts, and communicate information, different perspectives and their own opinions such as a mí me parece…, using different modes of presentation. They describe their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing opinions (for example, en mi opinión, personalmente yo prefiero, estoy de acuerdo), stating preferences (for example, después de pensarlo, yo…, prefiero más bien...es buena/mala idea), and comparing ways in which people, places and experiences are represented (for example, mejor que… peor que….más... menos). They draw on past experiences or future possibilities to create imaginative texts using regular (for example, caminar, beber, vivir) and irregular verbs (for example, estar, tener, ir) in a range of tenses including present (vivo), present perfect (he vivido), preterite (viví), imperfect (vivía) and future (viviré). They use descriptive vocabulary, such as numbers, adjectives (for example, generoso, simpático, listo, amistoso, azul, rosa, café) and adverbs (for example, generalmente, raramente, nunca), to extend and elaborate their texts. They use cohesive devices such as y, o, porque, cuando, por eso, pero, puesto que, debido a, y, pues, para and prepositions such as antes del atardecer, dentro de la casa in own language production to create cohesion. Students translate texts on familiar topics and produce texts in Spanish and English, comparing their different versions and considering possible explanations for variations. When participating in intercultural experiences they identify similarities and differences in language use and cultural expression. They identify significant people, places, events and influences in their lives and explain why these are important to their own sense of identity.

Students know that in Spanish there are words that are spelled and pronounced the same but that have different meanings, such as pila (pile or battery), and that a word often takes on a different meaning when an accent is added, for example, papá (‘father’) and papa (‘potato’), and the definite article el and pronoun él (‘he’ or ‘him’). They use metalanguage to explain features of language, texts and grammar and to identify how text structures and language features vary between different types of texts. Students explain how elements of communication such as gestures, facial expressions or the use of silence vary according to context, situation and relationships. They identify how Spanish both influences and is influenced by other languages and is spoken in a variety of forms in communities around the world. They explain why meanings and reactions vary according to the cultural assumptions that people bring to intercultural experiences and interactions.

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of the Spanish language and the cultures of Spanish speakers and a range of learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of the Spanish language and the cultures of Spanish speakers and a range of learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Spanish in these.

Spanish language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion and experimentation with different modes of communication (for example, digital media, collaborative performance and group discussions). Learners become more confident in communicating in a wider range of contexts through greater control of language structures and increased understanding of the variability of language use. They use Spanish to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to create, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They use Spanish more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their language use against a stronger frame of grammatical knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence communication.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, teachers and other Spanish speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They may access additional experience of the Spanish language and the cultures of the Spanish speaking world through interschool events, or community events such as film festivals or cultural performances.

Texts and resources

Learners use texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, teacher-generated materials and online resources. Learning is enriched by exposure to a range of authentic materials designed for or generated by young Spanish speakers in a variety of Spanish-speaking regions, such as video clips, magazine features, television programs or advertisements. Students take some responsibility for sourcing additional materials to support their own learning.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners use more complex language in spoken and written forms. They adjust tone, expression and intonation to shade meaning and to convey emotions. They expand their knowledge and control of grammatical elements such as verb tenses (imperfecto, futuro simple, condicional) and direct and indirect object pronouns. They use a range of cohesive devices to sequence and describe events in detail and to complete communicative tasks that involve planning, performance, and collaborative and independent work. Their language production includes elements of interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. They engage in critical analysis of texts such as advertisements and media reports, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and cultural contexts.

Learners examine the processes involved in using a different language, recognising them as cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider themselves through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes provision of rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system. Learners are provided with opportunities to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback combines with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes (for example, portfolios, peer review, digital journals).

The role of English

Spanish is used in more extended and elaborated ways. English continues to be used when needed for substantive discussion, explanation and analysis. This allows learners to talk in depth and detail about the experience of learning Spanish and about their thoughts on culture, identity and intercultural experience, supporting discussion of concepts such as ‘stereotypes’, ‘difference’, ‘diversity’ and ‘values’. It allows for a degree of expression and reflection that is beyond learners’ communicative capabilities in Spanish.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Discuss and compare young people’s interests, behaviours and values across cultural contexts
[Key concepts: social change, youth culture, communication, memory; Key processes: discussing, responding, building connections]
(ACLSPC181)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Engage in shared activities such as planning and organising events by contributing ideas, opinions and suggestions and managing diverse views
[Key concepts: perspectives, change; Key processes: planning, debating, persuading]
(ACLSPC182)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Sustainability

Engage in class discussions and debates, justifying opinions, evaluating perspectives and reflecting on own language learning
[Key concepts: perspectives, standpoint, representation; Key processes: debating, persuading, justifying, explaining]
(ACLSPC183)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information from multiple sources on a range of local and global issues
[Key concepts: environment, standpoint, representation; Key processes: analysing, synthesising, evaluating perspectives]
(ACLSPC184)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Convey information on a range of issues using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences
[Key concepts: perspective, society, environment; Key processes: constructing, reporting, persuading]
(ACLSPC185)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Creating

Engage with and review creative texts, identifying and explaining cultural attitudes and key messages
[Key concepts: relationship, perspective, values; Key processes: analysing, evaluating, reviewing]
(ACLSPC186)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Produce a variety of imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values for a range of audiences
[Key concepts: values, emotion, entertainment; Key processes: expressing, adapting, considering impact]
(ACLSPC187)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Translating

Translate both Spanish and English texts, and discuss cultural and other dimensions of the process
[Key concepts: culture, text, context; Key processes: evaluating, translating, comparing]
(ACLSPC188)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts that interpret aspects of Australian language and culture for Spanish-speaking audiences
[Key concept: bilinguality; Key processes: adjusting, interpreting, reflecting]
(ACLSPC189)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Participate in intercultural experiences, reflecting on own ways of communicating and considering how intercultural communication involves shared responsibility for meaning-making
[Key concept: mutual understanding; Key processes: making connections, questioning assumptions, adapting, adjusting]
(ACLSPC190)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Explore and compare cultural traditions in both the Spanish-speaking world and their own cultural contexts, considering how these influence identity
[Key concepts: identity, culture, worldview; Key processes: comparing, explaining]
(ACLSPC191)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise that pronunciation, intonation, rhythm and pace assist in fluency and in meaning-making in spoken interactions
[Key concepts: expression, fluency, accents; Key processes: discriminating, emphasising]
(ACLSPU192)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Apply complex grammatical rules such as those relating to reflexive verbs and subjunctive and conditional moods, and use cohesive devices to link and extend ideas in own spoken and written texts
[Key concepts: grammatical analysis, metalanguage; Key processes: analysing, manipulating]
(ACLSPU193)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Discuss the purpose and features of a range of texts, such as informative, argumentative or persuasive texts, using appropriate metalanguage to identify and describe characteristics
[Key concepts: textual features, stylistic devices, perspective; Key processes: analysing, correlating]
(ACLSPU194)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Analyse how language use in both spoken and written modes varies according to the geographical location and cultural profile of Spanish-speaking communities
[Key concepts: variation, diversity; Key processes: analysing language, comparing, explaining]
(ACLSPU195)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand and analyse the power of language to influence people, actions, values and beliefs
[Key concepts: power, influence; Key processes: reflecting, connecting, critical analysis]
(ACLSPU196)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Investigate the variety of languages used in different communities in the Spanish-speaking world, for example, Mapudungun, Basque/Euskera and Náhuatl
[Key concepts: diversity, status, recognition; Key processes: researching, analysing, discussing]
(ACLSPU197)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Understand and describe ways in which language and culture are interrelated and influence each other.
[Key concepts: culture, language, meaning, interdependence; Key processes: discussing, reflecting, comparing]
(ACLSPU198)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Spanish to initiate and sustain interactions with teachers, peers and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They use language spontaneously to offer opinions on social issues and to discuss young people’s interests, behaviours and values across cultural contexts. They justify opinions such as No creo que sea la mejor manera de resolver…, Estoy en contra de esa idea porque…, evaluate perspectives and reflect on their own language learning. They collaboratively plan and organise events and manage diverse views by using the subjunctive mood to express emotion and doubt and give negative commands (for example; Siento que no puedas ir a La Habana, Es posible que compre un reproductor MP3, No pienso que sea … Siento que estés enfermo … ¡No grites tanto!), the imperative mood for commands (for example, Hazlo bien, Toma el jugo/zumo, Escríbeme, Llámala …), and passive voice when appropriate (for example, se cometieron errores). Students locate, analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information on local and global issues from a range of perspectives and sources. They present information using different...

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By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Spanish to initiate and sustain interactions with teachers, peers and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They use language spontaneously to offer opinions on social issues and to discuss young people’s interests, behaviours and values across cultural contexts. They justify opinions such as No creo que sea la mejor manera de resolver…, Estoy en contra de esa idea porque…, evaluate perspectives and reflect on their own language learning. They collaboratively plan and organise events and manage diverse views by using the subjunctive mood to express emotion and doubt and give negative commands (for example; Siento que no puedas ir a La Habana, Es posible que compre un reproductor MP3, No pienso que sea … Siento que estés enfermo … ¡No grites tanto!), the imperative mood for commands (for example, Hazlo bien, Toma el jugo/zumo, Escríbeme, Llámala …), and passive voice when appropriate (for example, se cometieron errores). Students locate, analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information on local and global issues from a range of perspectives and sources. They present information using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences and to achieve different purposes. They select appropriate nouns and adjectives to describe values and attitudes identified in different imaginative texts, such as Ese joven no sirve para nada / Es un joven valiente, Ellos son ilegales / Ellos son los refugiados. They produce a variety of imaginative texts that reflect ideas, attitudes or values associated with Spanish-speaking communities, applying knowledge of the imperfect (for example, Cuando era joven vivíamos en Bogotá, Vivía en Granada cuando Pedro se graduó) and conditional tenses (for example, Valdría la pena ver los murales de Diego Rivera). They use grammatical elements such as reflexive verbs (for example, acostarse, cepillarse) and relative pronouns (for example, el amigo que visitamos), and use cohesive devices (for example, sin embargo, por eso, pero) to link and extend ideas, and time markers such as al día siguiente, después de…, más tarde… for sequencing. When translating Spanish, students identify cultural perspectives and explain how they have been represented. They create bilingual texts that reflect aspects of language and culture for both English-speaking and Spanish-speaking audiences. They contribute to mutual understanding when participating in intercultural experiences, and explain how family and cultural traditions shape people’s sense of identity.

Students identify connections between the variety of other languages used in different communities in the Spanish-speaking world and explain some of the variations in Spanish, such as the pronunciation of the letters c, s and z, and different ways of pronouncing ll and y. They use appropriate metalanguage to explain grammatical features such as word order, tenses and subjunctive mood and the purpose and features of different texts, such as informative and persuasive texts. Students analyse the influence of language on peoples’ actions, values and beliefs, including its capacity to include and exclude. They explain ways in which language and culture are interrelated and influence each other.

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