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  • Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Spanish and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, and some have proficiency in different home languages; these students bring existing language-learning strategies...

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The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of Spanish and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, and some have proficiency in different home languages; these students bring existing language-learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning Spanish. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy learning supports the development of literacy in Spanish. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on their sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

Spanish language learning and use

Learners are encouraged to listen to, read and write Spanish in a range of interactions with the teacher and one another. They experiment with sounds, intonation patterns and body language, using high-frequency vocabulary and expressions, gradually broadening their range of language functions. They use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar contexts and begin to use the language learnt to express their own personal meaning. They work both collaboratively and independently in Spanish, exploring a variety of simple texts, including songs/raps, emails, advertisements and online exchanges, with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They share language knowledge and resources in small groups to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They read, view and listen to texts, and apply modelled language to create and present their own texts, for example, shared stories, poems, advertisements and journal entries. They begin to use vocabulary and grammar accurately, drafting and editing texts to improve structure and clarify meaning. They develop grammatical knowledge and language awareness through analysing texts, comparing languages, and applying their knowledge in language exercises and tasks.

Learners use a range of processes such as observing, comparing and reflecting on language use to identify how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language, and how language choices determine how people, issues and circumstances are represented. They reflect on intercultural perspectives and their experience of interactions, and make cross-curricular connections. They consider fundamental concepts associated with the Spanish-speaking world, such as the diversity of peoples, cultures, geographic locations and languages. They explore aspects of environment, lifestyle and practices across cultures and make comparisons with their own. They develop a metalanguage for discussing language and culture, and monitor and reflect on their language and culture learning through discussions, journalling or contributions to a shared digital space.

Contexts of interaction

Opportunities for interaction in Spanish are provided through working with the teacher and peers in class and through using a range of resources and materials. There may also be some interaction beyond the classroom with members of Spanish-speaking communities. Spanish is used by the teacher and learners in classroom routines, structured interactions and learning tasks.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of resources designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They read, view and interact with a variety of spoken, written and digital texts created for different purposes (social, informative, transactional, imaginative and expressive). Authentic texts such as media texts, recipes and recorded conversations provide opportunities for discussion and analysis of the relationship between language, communication and culture.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners become familiar with the sounds of Spanish, including pronunciation, rhythm, pitch and stress. They recognise similarities with many English words, noting differences in pronunciation and spelling. They understand and apply elements of Spanish grammar such as word order; simple verb forms, including common reflexive verbs; gender and number agreement of articles, nouns and adjectives; pronouns; and prepositions. Students understand that language is organised as text, and that texts use different structures and language features to achieve different purposes. Students observe the patterns of word formation, noticing the role played by prefixes and suffixes. They create their own texts, mainly using the present tense of regular and common irregular verbs, enriched by the use of adjectives (including possessive and demonstrative) and adverbs. They understand that language use reflects and shapes values and attitudes, and explore how language choices determine how people, events or circumstances are represented.

Level of support

Learning at this level is supported by rich and varied language input and the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable. Opportunities to review and consolidate learning are balanced against provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and connections. Learners rely on teacher talk, instruction, modelling and feedback, and structured opportunities for practising and understanding new language. They are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to experience in different contexts. Support resources include word lists/dictionaries, visual organisers, images and gestures. Learners may collaborate with peers in structured pair and group tasks that have clear roles and expectations.

The role of English

English serves two main functions in the Spanish class: it represents a point of reference for Spanish learning by enabling students to compare structures, features and cultural meanings in both languages; and it is used when appropriate for explanation, reflection and discussion.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with teacher and peers to exchange information about self, family, friends and leisure activities, and to express feelings, likes and dislikes
[Key concepts: friendship, family, home, leisure; Key processes: interacting, exchanging, describing]
(ACLSPC001)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in collaborative activities and events that involve planning, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating
[Key concepts: negotiation, transaction, rules; Key processes: planning, giving and following instructions]
(ACLSPC002)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom routines and interactions by following instructions, asking and answering questions and expressing opinions
[Key concepts: roles, routines; Key processes: questioning, interacting]
(ACLSPC003)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Obtain factual information from a range of spoken, written and digital texts, identify key points and use the information in new ways
[Key concepts: diversity, concepts from other learning areas; Key processes: locating, comprehending, classifying]
(ACLSPC004)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present information on selected topics in spoken, written and digital forms
[Key concepts: community, traditions, environment; Key processes: describing, informing, presenting]
(ACLSPC005)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Engage with imaginative and creative texts such as narratives, poems, songs, films or comics, comparing favourite elements and discussing characters, events and ideas
[Key concepts: imagination, character, expression; Key processes: participating, responding, recounting]
(ACLSPC006)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create short imaginative texts such as cartoons, raps and stories to communicate own ideas, experiences and emotions
[Key concepts: performance, emotion, expression, imagination; Key processes: creating, expressing, connecting, imagining]
(ACLSPC007)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate and compare simple texts such as public signs, menus and advertisements in Spanish and English, noticing that it is not always possible to translate word for word
[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: translating, interpreting, comparing]
(ACLSPC008)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create simple bilingual texts such as learning resources, online announcements, games and displays for use in the classroom, school or wider community
[Key concepts; audience, suitability; Key processes: interpreting, comparing]
(ACLSPC009)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Notice while participating in intercultural activities that interaction involves culture as well as language
[Key concepts: norms, assumptions, values; Key processes: noting, reflecting, responding]
(ACLSPC010)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Consider how aspects of identity such as family background, age and interests impact on intercultural exchange
[Key concepts: self, profile; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, comparing]
(ACLSPC011)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Notice the role and importance of pronunciation and intonation in Spanish, for example, to distinguish between statements, questions and exclamations, and understand Spanish writing conventions such as inverted question marks at the start of questions
[Key concepts: pronunciation, intonation; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, imitating, reading aloud]
(ACLSPU012)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and use the main elements of the Spanish grammatical system, including definite and indefinite articles, gender and number agreement, present tense of regular and common irregular verbs, and simple sentence construction, paying attention to word order
[Key concepts: syntax, word order, gender, number, agreement; Key processes: noticing, applying, explaining]
(ACLSPU013)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise and describe features of familiar types of texts, and notice how these contribute to the making of meaning
[Key concepts: text conventions, genre; Key processes: noticing, analysing, comparing]
(ACLSPU014)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Understand that Spanish, like all languages, is used in different ways according to roles, relationships and social and cultural contexts
[Key concepts: register, status, variation; Key processes: noticing, analysing, explaining]
(ACLSPU015)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand the dynamic nature of languages
[Key concepts: language contact, word borrowing, globalisation, dynamism; Key processes: observing, identifying, discussing]
(ACLSPU016)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Recognise that Spanish is a global language that is spoken in a variety of forms in different communities around the world, including Australia
[Key concepts: diversity, regional variation, accents, global language; Key processes: mapping, comparing, distinguishing]
(ACLSPU017)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Recognise the interconnected relationship between language and culture
[Key concepts: interdependence, perspectives, cultural practices; Key processes: analysing, making connections, explaining]
(ACLSPU018)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students share information about their personal worlds, including personal details, family, friends, leisure activities, likes and dislikes, for example, Hola amigo, ¿Cómo estás? Me gusta tocar la guitarra, No me gusta comer carne. They interact with one another in shared activities, negotiations, games and events, using modelled language to ask and respond to familiar questions, give and respond to instructions (for example, Haz click sobre la imagen del monumento. Escoge la palabra correcta), request help or permission (for example, ¿Me puede ayudar…?, ¿Cómo se dice… en español? ¿Puedo ir a beber agua? ¿Salimos al recreo ya?), and express opinions (for example, Creo que… ¡Qué sorpresa!). When interacting, students approximate Spanish sounds and use intonation to distinguish between statements (for example, Juan estudia español), questions (for example, ¿Cómo se dice …?), exclamations (for example, Juan, ¡estudia español!) and requests (for example, ¿me das un chocolate?). They obtain factual information and identify key points from different sources, using non-verbal and contextual clues to help make meaning. They describe characters, experiences...

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By the end of Year 8, students share information about their personal worlds, including personal details, family, friends, leisure activities, likes and dislikes, for example, Hola amigo, ¿Cómo estás? Me gusta tocar la guitarra, No me gusta comer carne. They interact with one another in shared activities, negotiations, games and events, using modelled language to ask and respond to familiar questions, give and respond to instructions (for example, Haz click sobre la imagen del monumento. Escoge la palabra correcta), request help or permission (for example, ¿Me puede ayudar…?, ¿Cómo se dice… en español? ¿Puedo ir a beber agua? ¿Salimos al recreo ya?), and express opinions (for example, Creo que… ¡Qué sorpresa!). When interacting, students approximate Spanish sounds and use intonation to distinguish between statements (for example, Juan estudia español), questions (for example, ¿Cómo se dice …?), exclamations (for example, Juan, ¡estudia español!) and requests (for example, ¿me das un chocolate?). They obtain factual information and identify key points from different sources, using non-verbal and contextual clues to help make meaning. They describe characters, experiences and ideas using high-frequency vocabulary, and create short informative and imaginative texts using modelled sentence structures and formulaic expressions. When constructing sentences, students apply gender and number agreement to definite and indefinite articles, nouns and adjectives (for example, la luna clara, los bolsos rojos, un amigo español, unas estudiantes extranjeras). Students apply grammatical rules in relation to conjugation of verbs (for example, La bicicleta roja tiene un cesto negro, Tenemos los libros de lectura amarillos), and use the two verbs for ‘to be’ (ser and estar) in modelled examples (for example, Eres española/Estás en Australia, Soy alto y delgado/Estoy en año 8). They apply Spanish writing conventions such as inverted question and exclamation marks such as ¡No me digas! They work in Spanish and English to translate texts, and create simple bilingual texts. They describe their own experiences of using Spanish and explain how aspects of their identity influence their intercultural exchanges.

Students identify and apply rules for pronunciation and grammar and use metalanguage in Spanish to explain basic features of language, texts and grammar, making connections with terms such as ‘verb’, ‘adjective’, noun’ and ‘agreement’ that are used in English learning, and incorporating concepts such as grammatical gender. They identify the need to adjust language to suit different situations and relationships (for example, ¡Hasta pronto Doña Clara!). Students describe the distribution of communities of Spanish speakers in different countries and regions and know that Spanish is spoken in a variety of forms in different communities. They identify how languages and cultures change through contact, and give examples of Spanish words used in English such as ‘patio’, ‘chocolate’ and words used in Spanish that are borrowed from other languages such as shopping, tiquet. They identify cultural aspects of language use that are reflected in everyday interactions such as emailing, text messaging, gift-giving and apologising (for example, Lo siento mucho Don Pedro).

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Spanish and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including...

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The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Spanish and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Spanish may feature in these.

Spanish language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration and vocabulary expansion, and of experimentation with different modes of communication such as digital and hypermedia, collaborative performance and group discussions. Increasing control of language structures and systems builds confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Learners use Spanish to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, to participate in imaginative and creative experiences, and to design, interpret and analyse a wide range of texts and experiences. They use Spanish more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence forms of communication.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use written and spoken Spanish to interact with peers, teachers and other Spanish speakers in immediate and local contexts relating to their own social and educational worlds. They interact with cultural resources and Spanish-speaking communities in a variety of countries through a range of online environments.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and support materials, such as textbooks, DVDs, apps, media texts and online materials. They also draw increasingly on texts produced for Spanish-speaking communities, such as short stories, songs, poems, newspaper reports, films, video clips, blogs and social media texts.

Features of Spanish language use

Learners recognise and approximate the pronunciation, rhythms and intonation patterns of more extended phrases and compound sentences. They become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain more control of grammatical and textual elements. They use simple tenses (present, imperfect, preterite, future and conditional), and compound tenses conjugated with haber (present perfect). They recognise the form and function of pronouns and expand their understanding to include direct and indirect object pronouns.

Learners use expressive and descriptive language to talk about feelings and experiences. They develop understanding of the nature of both translation and interpretation, noticing the relationship between language, texts and culture. A balance is maintained between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that involve communicative tasks, performances and experiences. Tasks involve collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning. At this level, learners are developing understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity. They identify how meaning-making and representation in a different language involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on the learner’s ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to consider their own cultural practices through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners are provided with new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring support these challenges. Students are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in different contexts. They analyse and reflect on texts and intercultural experiences through discussion, documenting and journalling. Continuing focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners’ development as text producers.

The role of English

Spanish is used in more extended and elaborated ways by both teacher and learners. English may be used for substantive discussion, elaboration, comparison, analysis and reflection.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Socialise and exchange and compare ideas and opinions in relation to issues relevant to their own lives and interests, such as relationships, events and aspirations
[Key concepts: friendship, relationships, values, youth culture; Key processes: interacting, comparing, responding]
(ACLSPC019)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Negotiate with peers to plan and take action on local and global issues and to engage in different forms of spoken, written and digital transactions
[Key concepts: environment, human rights, fairness; Key processes: discussing, debating, commenting, comparing]
(ACLSPC020)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Plan and evaluate collaborative activities and tasks that involve expressing and comparing opinions
[Key concepts: community, responsibility; Key processes: expressing, representing, discussing]
(ACLSPC021)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Analyse and interpret information, ideas and perspectives obtained from a range of spoken, written and digital texts and present these in new forms
[Key concepts: perspective, representation; Key processes: selecting, analysing, interpreting]
(ACLSPC022)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Organise and present critical perspectives on information obtained from different sources to a variety of audiences
[Key concepts: audience, perspective, fact, opinion, interconnections; Key processes: constructing, presenting, reporting]
(ACLSPC023)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Creating

Respond to a range of imaginative oral, print and digital texts by interpreting or modifying them to express own ideas and feelings
[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: comparing, connecting, relating]
(ACLSPC024)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Express creative ideas and imagined experiences that relate to the cultures of Spanish-speaking communities using a variety of texts
[Key concepts: creativity, adventure, expression; Key processes: creating, expressing, experimenting, entertaining]
(ACLSPC025)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate texts from Spanish into English and vice versa, noticing and explaining words or expressions that are culturally specific and difficult to translate
[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, interpreting, comparing, explaining]
(ACLSPC026)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts such as displays, explanatory or promotional material or performances for immediate and virtual environments
[Key concepts: interpretation, bilinguality; Key processes: constructing, composing, explaining]
(ACLSPC027)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Consider own reactions when engaging with Spanish speakers and resources and how these may reflect aspects of own language and culture
[Key concepts: standpoints, intraculturality; Key processes: making connections, questioning assumptions, reflecting]
(ACLSPC028)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Consider and discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity
[Key concepts: identity, culture, communication; Key processes: observing, connecting, reflecting, explaining]
(ACLSPC029)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise and apply rules of Spanish pronunciation, stress and intonation, demonstrating awareness of differences in accent and pronunciation across the Spanish-speaking world, and use appropriate writing conventions
[Key concepts: rhythm, intonation, pitch; Key processes: recognising, discriminating, imitating, reproducing]
(ACLSPU030)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Extend knowledge of and use more complex features and patterns of the Spanish grammatical system, including possessive, demonstrative, object and relative pronouns; comparative and superlative adjectives; irregular verbs in the present tense, compound and simple past tenses, future and conditional tenses; and an introduction to the imperative mood
[Key concepts: tense, mood, modality; Key processes: analysing, classifying, applying, explaining]
(ACLSPU031)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse textual features of spoken, written and digital texts and consider how they shape meaning and influence responses
[Key concepts: cohesion, language features, register, tenor; Key processes: analysing, evaluating]
(ACLSPU032)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Recognise that Spanish is used in a variety of ways to achieve different purposes in different contexts
[Key concepts: formality, register, context; Key processes: observing, comparing, analysing]
(ACLSPU033)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Examine ongoing changes in Spanish as a language of local and international communication, considering the power of language to both influence and reflect culture
[Key concepts: globalisation, technological change, intercultural contact, popular culture; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, comparing, discussing]
(ACLSPU034)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand how language diversity reflects local and global variations in social and cultural histories
[Key concepts: regional variation, indigenous languages, power, symbolism; Key processes: exploring issues, identifying, analysing, comparing]
(ACLSPU035)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Understand the role of language and culture in shaping cultural identity and consider how learning a second language encourages a broadening of perspectives
[Key concepts: culture, meaning, change; Key processes: reflecting, analysing]
(ACLSPU036)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students interact in written and spoken Spanish to communicate about personal experiences, relationships and aspirations, and broader local and global issues such as the environment, social media and tourism, including issues that pertain to Spanish-speaking countries. Learners interact with peers to make decisions, solve problems, and negotiate and plan action in response to issues. When interacting, they use both rehearsed and spontaneous language and appropriate protocols (for example, Perdona, pero no estoy de acuerdo contigo porque …, me parece mejor … ¿qué os parece si…?) to express and compare opinions, share perspectives, and express agreement or disagreement (for example, Me parece que…, ¿qué les parece?, Que buena idea, me opongo). They apply rules of pronunciation, stress and intonation to a range of sentence types. They locate, summarise and analyse information from a range of texts, and communicate different perspectives and information in a range of contexts using different modes of presentation. They respond to and create personal, descriptive, informative and imaginative texts for different purposes, audiences and contexts using...

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By the end of Year 10, students interact in written and spoken Spanish to communicate about personal experiences, relationships and aspirations, and broader local and global issues such as the environment, social media and tourism, including issues that pertain to Spanish-speaking countries. Learners interact with peers to make decisions, solve problems, and negotiate and plan action in response to issues. When interacting, they use both rehearsed and spontaneous language and appropriate protocols (for example, Perdona, pero no estoy de acuerdo contigo porque …, me parece mejor … ¿qué os parece si…?) to express and compare opinions, share perspectives, and express agreement or disagreement (for example, Me parece que…, ¿qué les parece?, Que buena idea, me opongo). They apply rules of pronunciation, stress and intonation to a range of sentence types. They locate, summarise and analyse information from a range of texts, and communicate different perspectives and information in a range of contexts using different modes of presentation. They respond to and create personal, descriptive, informative and imaginative texts for different purposes, audiences and contexts using appropriate Spanish writing conventions. They use grammatical elements including present, imperfect, past and future tenses, reflexive verbs, and the subjunctive mood to express emotion (for example, Como chocolate todos los días, Fui al parque ayer, Salíamos a bailar los fines de semana, Estudiaré informática en la universidad). They use appropriate forms of possessive adjectives in own language production, as well as cohesive devices and prepositions to create cohesion and interest. They use relative pronouns (for example, El programa que miraba era cómico), relative clauses (for example, Mi amigo chileno me ha dicho que quiere venir con nosotras al cine) and adverbial phrases (for example, a la derecha, con frecuencia) to extend and elaborate their written texts. They work in Spanish and English to translate and create bilingual texts, explaining words or expressions that are culturally specific such as tapas, adobe, vaquero, Vive en el quinto pino, … más largo que un día sin pan. They describe their own reactions in intercultural exchanges and explain how their own assumptions and identity influence their language use.

Students identify differences in accent and pronunciation across the Spanish-speaking world, such as the use ceceo and seseo in different regions and countries. They use metalanguage to explain features of language (formal and informal language) and grammar (for example, las formas negativas, el futuro próximo con el verbo ir, masculino, femenino, singular, plural), and for reflecting on the experience of Spanish language and culture learning. They identify relationships between parts of words (prefixes and suffixes) and stems of words (for example, desagradable, la camioneta, la reconciliación), and how word patterns connect words in semantic families (for example, mercado, mercancía, feliz, felicidad, felicitaciones). They analyse the textual features of a range of texts in different modes and identify how these shape responses and influence meaning. They give examples of how Spanish is used in a variety of ways to achieve different purposes in different contexts and for different audiences. Students describe changes in the role of Spanish as a global language and explain how language both influences and reflects culture. They know that Spanish is co-official with many other languages in a range of countries, such as Guaraní in Paraguay; Quechua in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru; and Basque/Euskera, Catalan and Galician in Spain. They explain how meanings and interpretations vary according to the cultural assumptions that people bring to interactions, and consider how learning a second language provides the opportunity to view oneself from the perspectives of others.

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