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  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate worlds of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people,...

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate worlds of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Japanese language and culture.

Japanese language learning and use

The initial focus is on listening to the sounds and patterns of Japanese through language-rich activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Repetition and recycling help children to identify frequently used words, simple phrases and non-verbal communication strategies employed in greetings and other social interactions. Learners experiment with simple responses to prompts and cues.

They are introduced to the scripts through initial exposure to high-frequency kanji, focusing on their ideographic nature before learning the associated Japanese sounds. They learn hiragana using a play-based approach that incorporates chanting, the use of mnemonics and a focus on the creative and crafted process of writing Japanese kana. As they learn to read hiragana they draw on first language literacy skills such as predicting the meaning of unfamiliar elements using contextual cues or by linking them to known elements.

Reading skills begin with recognition of single kanji or hiragana and progress to reading whole words and familiar phrases. Writing skills progress from labelling pictures with single kanji and tracing and copying words in hiragana to scaffolded writing of words and short phrases.

As they progress to using Japanese for functions such as asking and answering questions, responding to classroom instructions, singing songs, and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks, children begin to notice that language behaves differently in different situations and that Japanese speakers communicate in some ways that are different from their own. They practise and repeat formulaic expressions and gestures such as bowing that differ in Japanese from ways of communicating in English. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using Japanese for purposeful interaction.

Contexts of interaction

Children use Japanese to interact with one another and the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Information and communications technology (ICT) resources provide additional access to Japanese language and cultural experiences.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, visual and written texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas, and join in stories, songs, plays and simple conversations. Written and digital texts include stories, wall charts, Big Books, and teacher-produced materials such as games, captions and flashcards.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners become familiar with the sound systems of the Japanese language, including pronunciation and rhythm. They learn to pronounce individual sounds and sound combinations. They understand basic word order in simple sentences, indicate affirmative or negative responses, respond to requests, and notice different levels of formality when addressing friends, family and teachers. They discuss similarities and differences that they notice between Japanese and their first language(s) and culture(s), such as adjective–noun patterns, adding to ask a question, and ways of showing respect.

Level of support

Learning is supported through the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling and monitoring by the teacher, provision of rich and varied sources of input, opportunities for recycling and reviewing, and regular cues, feedback, response and encouragement. At this stage, play and imaginative activities, music, movement and familiar routines provide the essential scaffolding for language development.

The role of English

While children are encouraged to use Japanese whenever possible, with the teacher providing rich and varied language input, English is used as a medium of instruction, and for explanation and discussion. This allows learners to discuss differences and similarities they notice between Japanese and their own language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions, and to express their reactions to the experience of learning and using an additional language.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Exchange greetings and introduce and share information about self with the teacher and peers using simple language and gestures
[Key concepts: self, interaction, politeness, preferences; Key processes: greeting, interacting, introducing, describing]
(ACLJAC109)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in guided group activities such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement, gestures and pictures to support understanding and to convey meaning
[Key concepts: play, action learning, collaboration; Key processes: participating, turn-taking, interacting]
(ACLJAC110)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom routines such as addressing and responding to the teacher, opening and closing of lessons, transition activities, following instructions, thanking and asking for help, using appropriate gestures and behaviour
[Key concepts: routines, rules, interactions; Key processes: participating, responding, requesting, apologising]
(ACLJAC111)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate items of information in simple texts such as charts, songs, rhymes, video clips and anime to complete guided tasks
[Key concepts: information, meaning, text, context; Key processes: listening, identifying, demonstrating, making meaning]
(ACLJAC112)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Convey factual information about self, family, friends and significant objects, using simple statements, gestures and support materials
[Key concepts: self, family, immediate environment; Key processes: naming, labelling, presenting, describing]
(ACLJAC113)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of imaginative texts, and respond through singing, chanting, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement
[Key concepts: imagination, response, expression; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing]
(ACLJAC114)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in shared performances and presentations of stories, songs, chants and rhymes
[Key concepts: performance, narration, image, rhythm; Key processes: acting, creating, composing, expressing]
(ACLJAC115)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate words and familiar phrases used in everyday situations from Japanese into English and vice versa, noticing how some words are shared between Japanese and English
[Key concepts: meaning, translation, explanation; Key processes: translating, demonstrating, interpreting]
(ACLJAC116)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create simple print or digital bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, labels and wall charts
[Key concepts: meaning, vocabulary, bilingualism; Key processes: creating, matching, selecting]
(ACLJAC117)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Reflecting

Notice and describe some ways in which Japanese language and communicative behaviour are similar or different to own language(s) and cultural forms of expression
[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity and difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, considering]
(ACLJAC118)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Use simple statements and gestures to express aspects of self, such as membership of family, friendship, gender, school/class or cultural groups
[Key concepts: identity, self, group, communication; Key processes: describing, explaining, identifying]
(ACLJAC119)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise sounds and rhythms of spoken Japanese, and learn how sounds are produced and represented in the three different scripts
[Key concepts: mora, rhythm, intonation; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising]
(ACLJAU120)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise and copy some hiragana and a few high-frequency kanji
[Key concepts: script, kana, kanji, phonemic awareness, meaning; Key processes: recognising, tracing, copying]
(ACLJAU121)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand the structure of basic sentences in Japanese and recognise some key elements of Japanese grammar
[Key concepts: grammar, vocabulary, syntax; Key processes: recognising, describing, indicating]
(ACLJAU122)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand that language is organised as ‘text’, and that different types of texts, such as storybooks, songs, chants, labels or rhymes, have different features
[Key concepts: text, meaning, genre, metalanguage; Key processes: recognising, identifying, describing]
(ACLJAU123)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Recognise that there are differences in how language is used in different cultural and social contexts, such as ways of greeting and addressing people
[Key concepts: variation, context, culture; Key processes: exploring, identifying, comparing]
(ACLJAU124)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Japanese and English borrow words and expressions from each other and from other languages
[Key concepts: language, change, word borrowing; Key processes: noticing, recognising, classifying]
(ACLJAU125)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Understand that language and culture are closely connected
[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, questioning]
(ACLJAU126)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers through play- and action-related language. They use formulaic expressions and appropriate gestures in everyday interactions such as exchanging greetings and farewells, for example, おはようございます、おはよう、こんにちは、さようなら、また、あした, thanking and apologising, and giving and receiving, for example, どうぞ、どうも. They use visual, non-verbal and contextual support such as pictures, gestures, facial expressions and props to make meaning of simple texts. When listening to simple repetitive spoken texts, they identify key words such as names or numbers of objects or people, and demonstrate comprehension by actions, drawing or labelling. They respond to instructions through actions, for example, きいて ください。みて ください 。, and respond to questions, for example, だれなに どこ with single words and set phrases and by selecting images or objects, for example, いぬ です か。ねこ です か 。. They present information about themselves, their family, friends and favourite things at word and simple sentence level, using formulaic and modelled language. They describe people and objects using adjectives to indicate colour, shape and size, for example, あかい りんご、おおきい、まるい....

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By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers through play- and action-related language. They use formulaic expressions and appropriate gestures in everyday interactions such as exchanging greetings and farewells, for example, おはようございます、おはよう、こんにちは、さようなら、また、あした, thanking and apologising, and giving and receiving, for example, どうぞ、どうも. They use visual, non-verbal and contextual support such as pictures, gestures, facial expressions and props to make meaning of simple texts. When listening to simple repetitive spoken texts, they identify key words such as names or numbers of objects or people, and demonstrate comprehension by actions, drawing or labelling. They respond to instructions through actions, for example, きいて ください。みて ください 。, and respond to questions, for example, だれなに どこ with single words and set phrases and by selecting images or objects, for example, いぬ です か。ねこ です か 。. They present information about themselves, their family, friends and favourite things at word and simple sentence level, using formulaic and modelled language. They describe people and objects using adjectives to indicate colour, shape and size, for example, あかい りんご、おおきい、まるい. They indicate ownership by using, for example, だれ の ですか。わたし/ぼく の です。 They mimic Japanese pronunciation, intonation and rhythm through shared reading and singing. Students recognise and begin to write single kanji, such as , , 山、川、月、日、一、ニ、三, the 46 hiragana symbols, and some hiragana words such as くち、ねこ、あお、しかく. They demonstrate understanding of hiragana as well as kanji by actions such as matching, labelling and sorting. They translate and interpret examples of everyday Japanese language use and cultural behaviours such as the exchange of greetings or thanks, terms of address and some formulaic expressions and behaviours.

Students identify the three different scripts in Japanese, hiragana, kanji and katakana. They understand that hiragana represents the basic units of Japanese sound and apply that knowledge in their communication. They know that kanji represents meaning as well as sounds, and that katakana is used for borrowed words. They know that stroke order in writing characters is important. Students identify patterns in Japanese words and phrases and make comparisons between Japanese and English, for example, the word order in greetings, such as Smith せんせい、and in simple sentences, such as おりがみ が すきです。ぞう は おおきい です。. They provide examples of different ways of addressing friends, family and teachers or other adults. They use pronouns, such as わたし/ぼく, and titles/suffixes, such as ~せんせい/~さん/~くん, to address different people. They identify Japanese words that are often used in English-speaking contexts, for example, ‘sushi’, ‘origami’ and ‘karate’. They give examples of Japanese words and phrases that have been borrowed from other languages, such as ピンク、テレビ、パン. They identify similarities and differences between Japanese and their own languages and cultures.

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Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups, including of the Japanese class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in English, and while this highlights differences between writing in alphabetic and character-based languages, it also assists to some...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups, including of the Japanese class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in English, and while this highlights differences between writing in alphabetic and character-based languages, it also assists to some degree in learning Japanese. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Japanese language learning and use

The development of oral proficiency at this stage continues to rely on rich language input in different modes. Learners listen and respond by actions to build active listening and comprehension skills. They participate in classroom routines and tasks and use some spontaneous language to describe feelings related to classroom activities. They participate in games and activities and engage with texts through teacher-generated questions and prompting. They give short presentations related to their personal worlds, including simple descriptions. With support they create labels, captions and short sentences. Language experience and input include authentic texts with some modification, familiar vocabulary and simple sentence structures. Children are supported to expand their use of the language in familiar interactions and situations, such as exchanging simple information and participating in shared tasks, performances and play. They continue to control simple grammatical forms and build vocabulary that can be adapted for different purposes. Students learn the use of diacritic marks to create voiced sounds. They learn to produce and pronounce characters with the support of flashcards, mnemonics, digital games and exercises. They read and write words written in hiragana and in high-frequency kanji with support and scaffolding. There is a combined focus on grammar, vocabulary building, pronunciation, and non-verbal and cultural dimensions of language use through purposeful communicative activities and experiences.

Contexts of interaction

The context in which learners interact is primarily the language classroom and the school environment, with some access to wider communities of Japanese speakers and resources through digital technology.

Texts and resources

Children develop literacy skills and textual knowledge through supported interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts such as picture books, stories, puppet plays, songs and games develop the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. To support the development of cultural knowledge, learners may have access to resources developed for Japanese children, such as storybooks, songs, television programs or interactive games.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners recognise the predictable nature of pronunciation in Japanese and apply their knowledge of sound–letter associations to spell new words. They recognise and use elements of grammar such as simple verb forms, adjectives, interrogatives and some particles to understand and create simple spoken and written texts. They use appropriate word order and sentence structures, including time, counter classifiers, and present, past and negative forms. Learning Japanese contributes to learners’ general literacy development and to the process of making sense of their worlds that characterises this stage of their development. As they encounter elements of Japanese language they make comparisons with their own language(s) and culture(s) and consider their own ways of communicating.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves extensive support. Tasks are carefully scaffolded. Teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete the task; make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection. Learners use the hiragana chart as a systematic framework to support reading and writing.

The role of English

Learners are supported to use Japanese as much as possible for classroom routines, social interaction, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. English is used for discussion, explanation and reflection, enabling learners to develop a language (metalanguage) for sharing ideas about language and culture systems and experience. Using both Japanese and English in the classroom develops awareness of what it means to be bilingual.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information about self, family, friends and favourite things, and likes and dislikes, and to express praise, support and respect for others
[Key concepts: communication, information, self, family, respect; Key processes: introducing, interacting, describing]
(ACLJAC127)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Participate in guided tasks that involve following instructions and cooperating with peers, such as sports and craft activities
[Key concepts: collaboration, participation, task, performance; Key processes: following instructions, rehearsing, performing, presenting]
(ACLJAC128)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Follow teacher instructions and directions by responding to questions and requests, and use simple questions and statements to ask permission and to show interest and appreciation
[Key concepts: interaction, negotiation, response; Key processes: responding, requesting, rehearsing]
(ACLJAC129)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate and process specific points of information in familiar types of written, spoken, multimodal and digital texts associated with people, places and objects
[Key concepts: information, research, data; Key processes: locating, collecting, classifying, recognising]
(ACLJAC130)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Present factual information relating to familiar home, community and cultural contexts, using graphic and digital support such as photos, tables, lists and charts
[Key concepts: family, relationships, routines; Key processes: describing, explaining, annotating]
(ACLJAC131)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Participate in and respond to imaginative texts such as interactive stories and performances, for example by acting out responses or making simple statements to identify and compare favourite characters and elements
[Key concepts: response, expression; Key processes: participating, imagining, creating, interpreting]
(ACLJAC132)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create and present imaginative texts for a range of audiences that use familiar expressions and modelled language and allow for exploration and enjoyment of language, cultural expression and performance
[Key concepts: fantasy, imagination, dramatisation; Key processes: imagining, creating, experimenting, performing]
(ACLJAC133)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Interpret and explain simple interactions in Japanese, noticing linguistic and cultural features
[Key concepts: meaning, culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: identifying, explaining, interpreting, comparing]
(ACLJAC134)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual versions of familiar texts such as songs, conversations, picture dictionaries, captions for images and displays, or photo stories
[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression, code-mixing; Key processes: translating, performing, creating, adapting]
(ACLJAC135)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Notice what is similar or different to own language and culture when interacting in Japanese in different contexts and situations
[Key concepts: respect, culture, similarity and difference, communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, experimenting, reflecting]
(ACLJAC136)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Notice how ways of communicating and behaving reflect identity and relationships
[Key concepts: identity, community, family, culture; Key processes: selecting, creating, representing, comparing]
(ACLJAC137)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand that hiragana symbols can be combined to represent words
[Key concepts: consonant, vowel, kana, foot, mora, rhythm, pronunciation; Key processes: recognising, differentiating, demonstrating]
(ACLJAU138)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise the systematic order within the hiragana character set; commence hiragana script writing and recognise and write frequently used kanji
[Key concepts: character, kana and kanji, stroke order, font; Key processes: recognising, tracing, reading, writing]
(ACLJAU139)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and identify elements of basic grammar and sentence structure and interaction patterns
[Key concepts: verb conjugation, particles, word order, vocabulary, counter; Key processes: describing, indicating, identifying, questioning]
(ACLJAU140)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise that texts such as stories, games and conversations have particular language features and textual conventions
[Key concepts: text, genre, language features, mode; Key processes: comparing, analysing, recognising]
(ACLJAU141)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Understand that language varies according to the age and relationship of those using it, and according to the situation in which it is being used
[Key concepts: register, context, variation; Key processes: observing, recognising, reflecting]
(ACLJAU142)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Japanese is the official language of Japan and one of the major languages of the Asia-Pacific region
[Key concepts: language status, standard language, multilingualism; Key processes: recognising, comparing, classifying]
(ACLJAU143)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Understand that the ways people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them
[Key concepts: cultural expression, values, respect, gestures; Key processes: observing, comparing, discussing, interpreting]
(ACLJAU144)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers in regular classroom routines and structured interactions. They understand and respond to instructions related to classroom organisation and activities, for example, ペア に なって ください。大きい こえ で いって ください。. They use formulaic and rehearsed language to exchange information about their personal worlds and in familiar interactions such as praising or encouraging one another, for example,

がんばって. They use language spontaneously in simple familiar communicative exchanges, for example, やったー!だいじょうぶ?. They respond to simple questions using short spoken statements, for example, いつ です か。なに が すき です か。. They use counter classifiers in response to questions such as なん(にん)、なん(がつ)、なんじ、なんさい. Students identify specific items of information, such as facts about or key characteristics of people, when listening to or viewing texts such as short stories, weather reports or video clips. They use cues such as context, visual images and familiar vocabulary to assist comprehension. They create short spoken informative and descriptive texts related to their personal world with the support of modelled language, scaffolded...

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By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers in regular classroom routines and structured interactions. They understand and respond to instructions related to classroom organisation and activities, for example, ペア に なって ください。大きい こえ で いって ください。. They use formulaic and rehearsed language to exchange information about their personal worlds and in familiar interactions such as praising or encouraging one another, for example,

がんばって. They use language spontaneously in simple familiar communicative exchanges, for example, やったー!だいじょうぶ?. They respond to simple questions using short spoken statements, for example, いつ です か。なに が すき です か。. They use counter classifiers in response to questions such as なん(にん)、なん(がつ)、なんじ、なんさい. Students identify specific items of information, such as facts about or key characteristics of people, when listening to or viewing texts such as short stories, weather reports or video clips. They use cues such as context, visual images and familiar vocabulary to assist comprehension. They create short spoken informative and descriptive texts related to their personal world with the support of modelled language, scaffolded examples and resources such as word lists. They describe people and events using adjectives, time-related vocabulary and appropriate verb forms, such as ます、ましょう、ました and ません. They read and write the 46 hiragana, including long vowels (for example, おとうさん、おおきい), voiced sounds (for example, かぞく、たべます), and blended sounds as formulaic language (for example, きょう、でしょう), as well as high-frequency kanji such as 月、日、先生. They apply word order (subject–object–verb) in simple sentences. They comprehend short written texts such as captions, labels, signs and stories that use familiar and repetitive language. They translate simple texts using classroom resources such as charts or word lists, noticing that some words and expressions do not translate easily. Students identify examples of cultural differences between ways of communicating in Japanese and in their own language(s).

Students identify both vowel and vowel–consonant sounds of hiragana, recognising that vowel sounds can be elongated and that this can change meaning. They identify ways in which rhythm is used to chunk phrases within a sentence. Students use the hiragana chart to support their reading and writing, recognising its systematic nature. They demonstrate awareness of the predictable nature of pronunciation. They know the role of particles, for example, は、を、と、も、に; the rules for simple verb tense conjugations; and how to create questions using the sentence-ending particle . They understand and use the rules and phonetic changes that apply to counter classifiers, for example, はっさい、ひとり、ふたり. They identify language variations that occur according to the age and relationship of participants, and according to the situation, for example, なまえ/ おなまえ、はし/ おはし. They demonstrate their understanding of the importance in Japanese of non-verbal communication such as the use of gestures, for example, bowing to replace words and to communicate meaning. Students identify ways in which Japanese language reflects ways of behaving and thinking.

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Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Japanese. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Japanese. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining a greater awareness of the world around them. Learners are noticing similarities and differences between Japanese language and culture and their own.

Japanese language learning and use

Learners use Japanese with peers and the teacher for a widening range of purposes: asking and responding to questions, exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, performing, responding to learning experiences, and interacting with Japanese language resources. They are developing greater fluency and accuracy in communication. As they draw on a growing range of vocabulary resources and grammatical structures, their pronunciation, intonation and phrasing improve. They begin to use Japanese more spontaneously when interacting with one another, and use an increasing range of body language and gestures. Shared tasks provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. Focused attention on language structures, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted at least in part in Japanese. Learners use digital media to support their learning in increasingly independent ways, such as exchanging resources and information with other Japanese speakers. In doing this, they may access music and media resources.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Japanese with one another and with the teacher for a growing range of purposes. They may have some access to other Japanese speakers and cultural experiences in wider contexts and communities through the use of information and communications technology (ICT).

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of oral, written and multimodal texts, including published texts such as modified folk stories, songs and computer games, as well as teacher-generated resources such as language games, exercises and presentations. In addition, learners have some access to Japanese language and culture through texts created for young Japanese people, such as stories, music clips, anime/manga and video clips.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners notice the relationship between stress, pacing and meaning, and use appropriate intonation patterns to exclaim, make a statement or ask a question. They continue to acquire a wider range of vocabulary and to build grammatical and textual knowledge. They use verbs, nouns and adjectives, a variety of particles, prepositions, counters and conjunctions. They differentiate between animate and inanimate objects and apply their knowledge of こそあど in context. They develop metalanguage to describe patterns, rules and variations in language structures. As they use Japanese to interact in different situations, they develop understanding of how language and culture influence each other, and reflect on their own ways of communicating and using language. Learners begin to experience and reflect on the challenges and opportunities involved in moving between languages and different ways of making meaning.

Level of support

While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into tasks and activities. Systematic feedback and review assist the interactive process of learning. Support includes provision of models, stimulus materials, scaffolded opportunities for reflection, and resources such as word and character charts, vocabulary lists, dictionaries and electronic reference materials. Learning tasks and activities take account of both learners’ current level of Japanese capability and their more general cognitive and social levels of development.

The role of English

While the use of Japanese in the classroom increases at this level, the use of English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and intercultural capability.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with peers and the teacher to describe aspects of daily life such as routines and pastimes, or celebrations and special days; to express preferences; and to show interest in and respect for others
[Key concepts: communication, correspondence, exchange, interests; Key processes: interacting, communicating, greeting, describing]
(ACLJAC145)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Collaborate with peers to plan and conduct shared events or activities such as teaching and working with a buddy class, organising a shared event, or rehearsing and presenting a school performance
[Key concepts: collaboration, performance, transaction; Key processes: planning, organising, introducing, explaining, transacting, budgeting]
(ACLJAC146)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in everyday classroom activities and routines such as asking how to say or write something, asking for help or repetition, praising or complimenting one another, thanking, apologising and expressing preferences
[Key concepts: roles, interaction, communication; Key processes: reading, naming, describing, requesting]
(ACLJAC147)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Gather, classify and compare information from a range of sources related to concepts from other learning areas
[Key concepts: interests, behaviours, social interactions, cultural expression; Key processes: researching, compiling, presenting, identifying]
(ACLJAC148)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Convey information on specific topics using formats such as oral or digital presentations, displays, diagrams, timelines and guided descriptions
[Key concepts: content, profile, audience, format; Key processes: presenting, profiling, referencing]
(ACLJAC149)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Creating

Listen to, read and view different imaginative texts such as anime, folk stories and manga, describe and give opinions about characters and events, and identify cultural elements
[Key concepts: character, plot, context, values, emotion; Key processes: analysing, discussing, responding, expressing, comparing]
(ACLJAC150)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create and present or perform imaginative texts for a variety of purposes and audiences
[Key concepts: performance, audience, rhythm, digital text; Key processes: creating, performing, designing]
(ACLJAC151)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Explain aspects of spoken, written and non-verbal communication in Japanese interactions that require interpretation and carry cultural meaning
[Key concepts: meaning, culture, interpretation, equivalence; Key processes: explaining, interpreting, demonstrating, experimenting, reflecting]
(ACLJAC152)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts and learning resources such as displays, websites, posters, picture books, games, word banks and menus
[Key concepts: bilingualism, learning resources, translation; Key processes: classifying, glossing, annotating, composing]
(ACLJAC153)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on the experience of learning and using Japanese, and identify how language reflects cultural practices and norms
[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity and difference, values; Key processes: identifying, analysing, comparing, reflecting]
(ACLJAC154)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Discuss the experience of speaking and interacting in a different language, what they understand by ‘identity’, and whether learning Japanese has any effect on their sense of self
[Key concepts: identity, communication, stereotype, protocol; Key processes: reflecting, identifying, exploring]
(ACLJAC155)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Engage with authentic spoken language, recognising how words blend and understanding the relationship between sounds, words and meaning
[Key concepts: phonemic awareness, spelling, rhythm; Key processes: identifying, discriminating, pronouncing, spelling]
(ACLJAU156)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise some single and whole word katakana and develop the ability to use hiragana and kanji in a single text
[Key concepts: scripts, characters, stroke order, punctuation; Key processes: reading, writing, recognising]
(ACLJAU157)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise the systematic nature of Japanese grammatical rules and apply these to generate new language for a range of purposes
[Key concepts: metalanguage, grammar, counters; Key processes: identifying, explaining, discriminating, applying]
(ACLJAU158)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise the use of formulaic expressions and textual features in familiar texts such as emails, letters, postcards or telephone conversations
[Key concepts: textual features, context, variation; Key processes: recognising, identifying, explaining, reflecting]
(ACLJAU159)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Understand that different ways of using Japanese language shape and reflect different relationships, such as deciding to be formal or informal
[Key concepts: register, context, tenor; Key processes: observing, reflecting, comparing]
(ACLJAU160)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Recognise that the Japanese language is both influenced by in turn influences other languages and cultures
[Key concepts: language contact, word borrowing, globalisation, technology, change; Key processes: identifying, classifying, reflecting]
(ACLJAU161)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Make connections between cultural practices and values and language use, such as formulaic expressions, and consider how these affect intercultural communication
[Key concepts: language, culture, expression, values, perspectives; Key processes: noticing, identifying, comparing, reflecting]
(ACLJAU162)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use formulaic and modelled language in classroom interactions to carry out transactions and to share or convey information about daily routines, activities and events, using time expressions such as まい日、ときどき. They ask and respond to questions in familiar contexts using complete sentences and appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and intonation. They ask for clarification and assistance, negotiate turn-taking and follow instructions. They extend their answers by using conjunctions such as そして、それから. They show concern for and interest in others by making enquiries such as だいじょうぶ?, and apologise and express thanks using appropriate gestures. They read and write all hiragana, including voiced sounds, long vowel sounds, double consonants and blends, and high-frequency kanji, for example, (いぬ), 小さい、(あめ). Students locate specific information and some supporting details in a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts on familiar topics. They express reactions to imaginative texts, such as by describing qualities of characters, for example, やさしい 人 です。. They create connected texts of a few sentences, such as descriptions, dialogues or skits. They...

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By the end of Year 6, students use formulaic and modelled language in classroom interactions to carry out transactions and to share or convey information about daily routines, activities and events, using time expressions such as まい日、ときどき. They ask and respond to questions in familiar contexts using complete sentences and appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and intonation. They ask for clarification and assistance, negotiate turn-taking and follow instructions. They extend their answers by using conjunctions such as そして、それから. They show concern for and interest in others by making enquiries such as だいじょうぶ?, and apologise and express thanks using appropriate gestures. They read and write all hiragana, including voiced sounds, long vowel sounds, double consonants and blends, and high-frequency kanji, for example, (いぬ), 小さい、(あめ). Students locate specific information and some supporting details in a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts on familiar topics. They express reactions to imaginative texts, such as by describing qualities of characters, for example, やさしい 人 です。. They create connected texts of a few sentences, such as descriptions, dialogues or skits. They structure sentences using particles, for example, へ、で、を、がand prepositions, for example, (うえ), and apply the rules of punctuation when writing. They describe and recount events and experiences in time, for example, adjective です。noun です/でした。 and present/past/negative verb forms, for example, のみます、たべます、()ました、いきません. They use counter classifiers in response to questions such as いくら です か。なんびきなんこ?. Students translate familiar texts, recognising formulaic expressions and culturally specific textual features and language use. They comment on similarities and differences in ways of expressing values such as politeness, consideration and respect in Japanese compared to other languages and cultures.

Students understand and use the hiragana chart to pronounce contracted and blended sounds and exceptions to phonetic rules, such as を、へ、は, and です. They understand and apply the rules and phonetic changes related to counter classifiers, such as さんぜんえん、いっこ、はっぴき. They apply their knowledge of stroke order to form characters. They give examples of ways in which languages both change over time and are influenced by other languages and cultures. They identify words from other languages used in Japanese, such as パソコン、メール、パスタ, and how the pronunciation, form and meaning of borrowed words can change when used in Japanese. Students identify behaviours and values associated with Japanese society and incorporate these into their own language use, such as ways of deflecting praise, for example, じょうず です ね。いいえ。.

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Japanese, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate with some assistance about their immediate world and that of Japanese speakers. They...

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Japanese, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate with some assistance about their immediate world and that of Japanese speakers. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in reflecting on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved.

Japanese language learning and use

Japanese is used for classroom interactions and transactions, for creating and maintaining a class dynamic, and for explaining and practising language forms. Learners work both collaboratively and independently in Japanese, exploring a variety of texts, including songs/raps and role-plays, with particular reference to their social, cultural and communicative interests. They share language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and increasingly generate original language. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences. They plan, draft and present imaginative and informative texts and participate in collaborative tasks and games. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and re-drafting to improve and clarify meaning.

Students learn to use katakana and develop their understanding of the relationship between hiragana, katakana and kanji in texts. They read, view and interact with a growing range of texts for a variety of informative, transactional and communicative purposes. They are developing a broader range of vocabulary and expression and creating more complex sentences using structures such as まい(にち)(とも)だちとバスでがっこうに()きます。.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for learning and using Japanese remains the language classroom; however, there may be increasing opportunities for interaction with peers in a range of Japanese-speaking communities through the use of technologies, partner-school arrangements and community connections. Learners have access to additional Japanese language resources through websites, video clips and other multimodal texts.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners expand their range of vocabulary to subjects beyond their immediate world and familiar experiences. They develop broader grammatical knowledge, using verbs and / adjectives, negative conjugations, various particles, counters, superlatives and conjunctions, to describe and sequence events. With support they create a range of texts and participate in information sharing and performances. They recognise and apply Japanese punctuation conventions and the characteristic features of text types such as self-introductions and letters. They analyse more critically and imaginatively the relationship between language and culture, identifying cultural references in texts and considering how language reflects and influences perspectives and values, for example, the use of the prefixes / to show respect. They make comparisons between their own language(s) and Japanese, and reflect on the experience of moving between languages and cultural systems. They monitor and reflect on their intercultural experience and capability as language learners, and identify their personal and community practices that reflect cultural influences.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a variety of texts specifically designed for learning Japanese in schools, including video clips and online resources. They also access materials created for Japanese-speaking communities, such as films (subtitled), websites and advertisements that provide opportunities to make connections between texts and cultural contexts, perspectives and experiences.

Level of support

Opportunities to review and consolidate prior learning are balanced against provision of engaging and relevant new experiences and connections. Students are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, to self-monitor and peer-monitor, and to adjust language in response to their experiences in different contexts.

The role of English

While Japanese is used in more extended and elaborated ways for classroom interactions and routines, task participation and structured discussion, English is used for more complex elements of instruction and discussion, analysis and reflection. Learners continue to develop metalanguage for thinking and talking about language, culture and identity and the experience of learning and using Japanese.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with others to share interests and experiences, exchange information and express opinions and feelings
[Key concepts: lifestyle, communication, experience, opinion; Key processes: interacting, recounting, responding, elaborating]
(ACLJAC163)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Engage in activities that involve collaboration, planning, organising, negotiating and transacting
[Key concepts: negotiation, transaction, presentation, instruction; Key processes: planning, budgeting, comparing, sequencing]
(ACLJAC164)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Interact in whole-class and small group activities that involve seeking information from peers or the teacher, asking and responding to questions, making requests, and asking for and providing clarification
[Key concepts: discussion, reflection, suggestion; Key processes: suggesting, clarifying, responding, requesting]
(ACLJAC165)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Access, summarise and reorganise information obtained from a range of texts on a variety of topics, and present it in different formats
[Key concepts: research, data, media; Key processes: researching, collating, designing, presenting]
(ACLJAC166)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Present information about events, experiences or topics of shared interest, using modes of presentation such as charts, diagrams or digital displays to suit different audiences and contexts
[Key concepts: information, experience, perspective, audience; Key processes: managing information, shaping text, composing]
(ACLJAC167)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Analyse and respond to a range of imaginative texts, noticing cultural elements and comparing with English-language texts created for similar audiences
[Key concepts: representation, culture, context, values, expression; Key processes: identifying, evaluating, comparing, contextualising]
(ACLJAC168)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Create a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts that involve imaginary characters, places and experiences to entertain others
[Key concepts: mood, drama, effect, audience; Key processes: creating, performing, composing]
(ACLJAC169)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Translating

Translate short texts such as signs, simple dialogues or phone conversations from Japanese into English and vice versa, noticing when it is difficult to transfer meaning from one language to the other
[Key concepts: culture, equivalence, idiom; Key processes: translating, comparing, mediating]
(ACLJAC170)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Work collaboratively to design bilingual resources to convey information to the school community
[Key concepts: bilingual text, glossary, meaning; Key processes: annotating, explaining]
(ACLJAC171)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions, identifying and comparing aspects of culture that affect communication and noticing how own culture impacts on language use
[Key concepts: intercultural experience, perspective, insight, self-reflection; Key processes: comparing, analysing, reflecting, choosing]
(ACLJAC172)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Consider how their own biography, including family origins, traditions, interests and experiences, impacts on their sense of identity and ways of communicating
[Key concepts: identity, family, community, communication, culture; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, representing]
(ACLJAC173)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand that katakana is used for loan words, and that these words must be pronounced within the combinations of available Japanese sounds
[Key concepts: pronunciation, loan words, voiced/unvoiced sounds, contractions, blends; Key processes: pronouncing, recognising]
(ACLJAU174)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise and use all katakana and understand the relationship in texts between hiragana, katakana and kanji
[Key concepts: script function, kanji readings; Key processes: identifying, differentiating, writing, reading]
(ACLJAU175)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand how to control elements of the Japanese grammatical system to express a range of ideas and experiences in written and spoken forms, and recognise the systematic nature of verb conjugation
[Key concepts: metalanguage, verb conjugation, sentence structure, register; Key processes: describing, categorising, analysing]
(ACLJAU176)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Understand how and why different scripts are used in different types of texts, such as announcements, tickets, advertisements, public signs or manga
[Key concepts: genre, text features, text structure, cohesion; Key processes: analysing, describing, comparing]
(ACLJAU177)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Explain variations in Japanese language use that reflect different levels of formality, authority and status
[Key concepts: register, tenor, respect; Key processes: differentiating, explaining, comparing]
(ACLJAU178)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that the Japanese language has evolved and developed through different periods of influence and change
[Key concepts: language change, word borrowing, intercultural exchange, globalisation; Key processes: identifying, analysing, explaining]
(ACLJAU179)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Understand that Japanese language and culture, like all languages and cultures, are interrelated, both shaping and reflecting each other
[Key concepts: cultural expression, status, harmony, humility; Key processes: recognising, explaining, comparing]
(ACLJAU180)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use Japanese to interact with peers, the teacher and others to exchange information, recount experiences and express opinions. They use verb ましょう for planning and making arrangements and offering suggestions. They ask and respond to a range of questions, for example, だれと、(なん)で、いつ、どこで、using both rehearsed and some spontaneous language, giving opinions and making comparisons, for example, でも or が、わたしは フットボールが 好きです。でも、母は フットボールが 好きじゃないです。. Students apply rules of pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation to a range of sentence types and vocabulary, including double consonant and long vowel sounds and borrowed words. Students read and write hiragana, read katakana, and write familiar katakana words, including elongated vowels, double consonants and contractions. They read and write high-frequency kanji for verbs (for example, 行きます、見ます、来きます), nouns (for example, 先生、父、母、月よう日), adjectives (for example, 早い), and the pronoun . They read some compound words such as 日本語. They locate, analyse and summarise information from a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts, such as video clips, letters, posters, notices and advertisements. They plan...

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By the end of Year 8, students use Japanese to interact with peers, the teacher and others to exchange information, recount experiences and express opinions. They use verb ましょう for planning and making arrangements and offering suggestions. They ask and respond to a range of questions, for example, だれと、(なん)で、いつ、どこで、using both rehearsed and some spontaneous language, giving opinions and making comparisons, for example, でも or が、わたしは フットボールが 好きです。でも、母は フットボールが 好きじゃないです。. Students apply rules of pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation to a range of sentence types and vocabulary, including double consonant and long vowel sounds and borrowed words. Students read and write hiragana, read katakana, and write familiar katakana words, including elongated vowels, double consonants and contractions. They read and write high-frequency kanji for verbs (for example, 行きます、見ます、来きます), nouns (for example, 先生、父、母、月よう日), adjectives (for example, 早い), and the pronoun . They read some compound words such as 日本語. They locate, analyse and summarise information from a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts, such as video clips, letters, posters, notices and advertisements. They plan, draft and present informative and imaginative texts with the support of modelled resources. They use counter classifiers in response to questions, for example, いくつ、何まい、何本、何分. They build cohesion in their texts and elaborate on meaning through the use of grammatical elements such as conjunctions (for example, だから), and adverbs of frequency (for example, いつも), time (for example, 時、半、分、(まえ)) and direction, for example, みぎ、ひだり、前、うしろ. They use a variety of verb tenses to express ideas and experiences, and a range of particles, such as が、へ、から、まで、including for example to indicate timeframes. Students translate and interpret short texts from Japanese into English and vice versa, providing alternative expressions when equivalence is not possible. They share their reactions to intercultural experiences, describing and explaining why some elements fit easily with their sense of their own identity while others do not.

Students understand that the pronunciation of katakana is the same as that of hiragana, and that the pronunciation of borrowed words is influenced by the Japanese sound system. They apply appropriate word order in their spoken and written language, varying the order of noun phrases without altering the meaning. They understand and use andadjectives when appropriate, and apply the rules of phonetic change to counter classifiers, such as ひとつ、さんぼん、じゅっぷん. They identify and reproduce features of familiar text types such as emails, descriptions and dialogues. They identify words (for example, お母さんand ), phrases (for example, どうぞよろしく。), prefixes (for example, and ), suffixes (for example, ~さん and ~さま) and titles (for example, ~先生) that indicate different levels of formality. They recognise values that are important in Japanese society, such as maintaining harmony and a sense of collective well-being, and how these are reflected through language and behaviours, such as indirect forms of refusal or disagreement, for example,もうすこしがんばりましょう。. They explain how cultural values and ideas are embedded in all languages and how their own communicative behaviour might be interpreted from other cultural perspectives.

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Japanese language and culture and a range of learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Japanese language and culture and a range of learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Japanese in these.

Japanese language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion, and experimentation with different modes of communication, for example, digital media, collaborative performance and group discussions. Learners become more confident in communicating in a wider range of contexts through greater control of language structures and vocabulary and increased understanding of the variability of language use. They use Japanese to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to create, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They sequence and describe events using a range of cohesive devices, and complete communicative tasks that involve planning, performance, collaborative and independent work. They use language more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair, and use あいづち to facilitate communication. They reference the accuracy of their language use against a stronger frame of grammatical knowledge.

Learners at this level are able to read and write using hiragana, katakana and an increasing number of kanji in all texts. Their writing is more sophisticated, using connectives and conjunctions, and they engage with more complex language structures.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Japanese speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They may access additional cultural experiences through events such as school exchanges, festivals, interschool events or cultural performances.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with texts designed for language learning, such as teacher-generated materials and online resources. Learning is enriched by exposure to a range of authentic materials designed for or generated by young Japanese speakers, such as video clips or advertisements. Students take some responsibility for sourcing additional materials to support their own learning.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners use more complex language in oral, written and multimodal forms. They expand their knowledge and control of grammatical elements such as the form and plain form of verbs, for example, ~ています、~てもいい、~と(おも)います、and ~たり~たり、and conjugation patterns for both verbs and adjectives. Their language production includes elements of interpreting, creating and performing. They engage in analysis of texts such as advertisements and media reports, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and cultural contexts.

Learners examine the processes involved in using a different language, recognising them as cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness, and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider themselves through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes provision of rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system. Learners are provided with opportunities to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback is combined with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, such as through portfolios, peer review, or digital journals.

The role of English

Japanese is used in more extended and complex ways. English continues to be used for discussion, explanation and analysis. This allows learners to communicate in depth and detail about the experience of learning Japanese and about their thoughts on culture, identity and intercultural experience. English is the language of analysis and critique, supporting discussion of concepts such as stereotypes, difference, diversity and values. It allows for a degree of expression and reflection that is beyond learners’ communicative capabilities in Japanese.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Engage in discussions and comparisons of young people’s interests, activities and lifestyles
[Key concepts: perspectives, relationships, youth culture, social practices; Key processes: discussing, describing, reciprocating]
(ACLJAC181)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Collaborate, plan and manage activities, events or experiences, such as hosting a Japanese class or visitor, going to a restaurant, or preparing for a real or virtual event, trip or excursion
[Key concepts: collaboration, intercultural experience, active learning; Key processes: planning, cooperating, rehearsing, mediating]
(ACLJAC182)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Develop language to reflect on the experience of learning and using Japanese
[Key concepts: metalanguage, reflection, review; Key processes: expressing, analysing, comparing, evaluating]
(ACLJAC183)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Analyse ideas presented in a range of texts, identifying context, purpose and intended audience
[Key concepts: register, standpoint, representation, themes; Key processes: scanning, summarising, comparing, analysing]
(ACLJAC184)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present different types of information for specific purposes and contexts using appropriate formats and styles of presentation
[Key concepts: social media, promotional material; Key processes: composing, selecting, editing, presenting]
(ACLJAC185)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Creating

Identify how expressive and imaginative texts create humorous, emotional or aesthetic effects that reflect cultural values or experiences
[Key concepts: humour, emotion, effects, culture; Key processes: interpreting, evaluating, analysing, comparing]
(ACLJAC186)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create a variety of imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values that suggest intercultural comparisons
[Key concepts: imagination, stimulus, context, values; Key processes: adapting, creating, interpreting, expressing, engaging, performing]
(ACLJAC187)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Translating

Compare translations of different types of texts, including versions obtained from digital translators, considering differences in interpretation and how language reflects elements of culture
[Key concepts: meaning, interpretation, cultural expression; Key processes: translating, comparing, analysing, reviewing]
(ACLJAC188)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts in Japanese and English for a range of communicative and informative purposes, incorporating oral, written and visual elements
[Key concepts: bilingual learning resources, bicultural contexts; Key processes: classifying, translating, glossing, referencing, mediating]
(ACLJAC189)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Monitor language choices when using Japanese and take responsibility for modifying language and behaviours to assist intercultural communication
[Key concepts: reciprocity, intercultural experience; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, exemplifying, comparing]
(ACLJAC190)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Reflect on cultural differences between Japanese- and English-language communication styles and on how these affect intercultural interactions
[Key concepts: identity, culture, communication; Key processes: comparing, analysing, evaluating, profiling]
(ACLJAC191)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand intonation and phrasing patterns in both informal and formal speech, and recognise multiple readings of familiar kanji in different compounds
[Key concepts: phrasing, intonation, variation, meaning; Key processes: identifying, discriminating]
(ACLJAU192)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Use knowledge of familiar kanji to predict meaning of unknown words
[Key concepts: script conventions, kanji readings, radicals; Key processes: recognising, discriminating, writing, decoding]
(ACLJAU193)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Understand how sophistication in expression can be achieved by the use of a variety of verb and adjective conjugations
[Key concepts: metalanguage, plain form, form conjugation, word functions; Key processes: identifying, defining, classifying, sequencing]
(ACLJAU194)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Identify, analyse and compare textual features and conventions that characterise social and informative media in Japanese and English
[Key concepts: textual conventions, language features, cohesion; Key processes: comparing, analysing, identifying]
(ACLJAU195)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Analyse variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships
[Key concepts: (うち)/(そと), respect, social relations, variation, register; Key processes: selecting, applying, comparing, evaluating]
(ACLJAU196)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Investigate changes to Japanese and other languages and cultures, identifying factors such as education, media and new technologies, popular culture and intercultural exchange
[Key concepts: globalisation, exchange, influence, contemporary culture, language revival/reclamation; Key processes: mapping, classifying, analysing, reviewing]
(ACLJAU197)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Understand that the Japanese language carries embedded cultural information and assumptions that can be difficult for speakers of other languages to interpret
[Key concepts: intercultural exchange, meaning, reciprocity, values; Key processes: analysing, questioning, discussing]
(ACLJAU198)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use Japanese to share information, experiences and views related to their social worlds using rehearsed and spontaneous language. They use correct pronunciation, including that of borrowed words, and adopt appropriate rhythm and phrasing to allow for others’ use of あいづち. They ask and respond to questions, elaborating responses by providing reasons or explanations, using a range of adjectives and adverbs such as ぜんぜん or かなり. Students begin to use plain form to communicate with their peers. They use kanji to read and write verbs, for example, 思います、来ます、聞きます、食べます、()みます, nouns, for example, 新聞、会話(かいわ), 外国語(がいこくご) and adjectives, for example, 早い、上手な、下手(へた). Students extract, analyse and evaluate information from extended spoken, written and multimodal texts, such as films, blogs, brochures, itineraries and journals. They predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and expressions from context, grammatical knowledge and familiar kanji, and by drawing on their knowledge of textual characteristics and features. Students produce informative and imaginative texts, appropriate to audience and purpose, using the form and plain form to express preferences...

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By the end of Year 10, students use Japanese to share information, experiences and views related to their social worlds using rehearsed and spontaneous language. They use correct pronunciation, including that of borrowed words, and adopt appropriate rhythm and phrasing to allow for others’ use of あいづち. They ask and respond to questions, elaborating responses by providing reasons or explanations, using a range of adjectives and adverbs such as ぜんぜん or かなり. Students begin to use plain form to communicate with their peers. They use kanji to read and write verbs, for example, 思います、来ます、聞きます、食べます、()みます, nouns, for example, 新聞、会話(かいわ), 外国語(がいこくご) and adjectives, for example, 早い、上手な、下手(へた). Students extract, analyse and evaluate information from extended spoken, written and multimodal texts, such as films, blogs, brochures, itineraries and journals. They predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and expressions from context, grammatical knowledge and familiar kanji, and by drawing on their knowledge of textual characteristics and features. Students produce informative and imaginative texts, appropriate to audience and purpose, using the form and plain form to express preferences, permission and prohibition and to describe past experiences. They build cohesion and complexity in written texts by using conjunctions, such as ですから、けれども, and indicate frequency by using a range of intensifiers, for example, よく、たいてい. Students discriminate appropriately in their use of kanji, hiragana and katakana. They translate and interpret texts, explaining words and expressions that are difficult to translate or that have embedded cultural meanings, such as にゅうがくしき、おぼん、サラリーマン. They discuss elements of interaction in Japanese, such as the importance and use of あいづち in meaning-making. They make connections and comparisons between their own and others’ culturally shaped perspectives, reflecting on the influence of perspectives on intercultural communication.

Students understand the functions of the different scripts within text, for example, hiragana for grammatical elements; katakana for borrowed words and some onomatopoeia; and kanji for nouns, verbs, adjectives and some adverbs. They distinguish, for example, between おくりがな and ふりがな, and understand the concept of おん/くん readings. They identify multiple readings of kanji, and begin to use kanji radicals as a tool for indicating meaning. Students use the form and plain form verbs as a basis for grammar conjugations. They use metalanguage to describe and compare language features and rules of sentence construction. Students choose です/ます or plain form based on age, relationship, familiarity and context. They identify hybrid terms that combine Japanese and English, such as コピペ、オーガナイズする、ダンスする. They explain how key Japanese cultural values such as community, (うち)/(そと) and humility, いいえ、まだです。, and consideration of others are reflected in language and behaviours.

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