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  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share...

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Italian language and culture.

Italian language learning and use

Students use Italian for social interactions such as greetings, asking and answering simple questions, responding to instructions, singing songs, and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks. The focus is on listening to the sounds, shapes and patterns of Italian through activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Repetition and recycling help children to identify frequently used words and simple phrases, and to recognise the purpose and intention of simple texts. They identify and use Italian non-verbal communication strategies and experiment with formulaic expressions and one or two-word responses to prompts and cues. Through creative play and action-related talk, children begin to notice that language can behave differently in different situations and that Italian speakers communicate in some ways that are different from their own. Students are encouraged to notice that they are part of a connected world which includes many languages and cultures, and they begin to become aware of themselves as communicators in particular cultural contexts and communities.

Contexts of interaction

Children interact with each other and the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Virtual and digital resources provide access to additional Italian language and cultural experiences, connecting learners’ social worlds with those of Italian-speaking children.

Texts and resources

The transition from spoken to written language is scaffolded through shared exploration of simple texts and language features. Children progress from supported comprehension and a small number of high-frequency and personally significant sight words and phrases to more elaborated simple texts which include a context, purpose and audience. They use grapho-phonic, grammatical, cultural and contextual cues to comprehend texts and communicative interactions. Writing skills progress from labelling and copying words, to writing simple texts using familiar vocabulary, and language structures and features. Written texts that students experience include children’s stories, big books, descriptions, recounts and labels.

Features of Italian language use

Students focus on the sounds of the alphabet, in particular the vowel sounds, and ‘c’ (ciao) and ‘ch’ (Chi?), and on intonation patterns and the use of accents. Students are also introduced to nouns and pronouns. They learn simple sentence structure using subject–verb–object order as well as how to form questions. They explore the idea of masculine and feminine gender, how to use singular and plural forms, the negative form non and the placement of adjectives.

Level of support

Students’ learning is highly experiential and activity-related, and is supported by the use of concrete materials and resources, visual supports, gestures and body language. Scaffolding includes modelling, monitoring and moderating by the teacher; provision of multiple and varied sources of input; opportunities for revisiting, recycling and reviewing; and continuous cues, feedback and encouragement.

The role of English

Children are encouraged to use Italian whenever possible. They use English to talk about differences and similarities they notice between Italian, English and other known; about how they feel when they hear or use Italian; and about how they view different languages and the people who speak them. English is used by both the teacher and learners for talking about the language and about learning, and for noticing, questioning and explaining.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with the teacher and peers to greet, to introduce themselves, and to name and describe favourite things, friends, family members and special talents, through action-related talk and play
[Key concepts: self, family, friendship; Key processes: participating, playing, observing]
(ACLITC001)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in shared action with peers and teacher, contributing ideas through key words, images, movement and song
[Key concept: exchange; Key processes: sharing, deciding together]
(ACLITC002)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in real or simulated transactions using simple language and gestures in activities and games involving buying and selling
[Key concept: exchange; Key processes: exchanging, describing]
(ACLITC003)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom routines, games, instructions and shared activities
[Key concepts: routine, play, sharing, reward; Key process: expressing preferences]
(ACLITC004)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Locate specific items of information in texts using early literacy skills
[Key concepts: text, observation, number, meaning; Key processes: noticing, decoding, selecting]
(ACLITC005)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Give factual information about known people, everyday objects, family celebrations and personal experiences
[Key concepts: self, ownership/possession, celebration; Key process: conveying information]
(ACLITC006)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Participate in shared reading/viewing of short imaginative texts and respond by drawing, miming, performing and other forms of expression
[Key concepts: story, imagination, response, character; Key processes: participating, responding, predicting, performing; Key text type: narrative/story]
(ACLITC007)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create stories and perform imaginary experiences
[Key concepts: performance, expression; Key processes: miming, performing]
(ACLITC008)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Share with others what they can express in Italian, and explain how meanings are similar or different
[Key concepts: code, translation; Key processes: comparing, explaining]
(ACLITC009)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create a personal or shared record of ‘interesting’ words in Italian
[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key process: comparing]
(ACLITC010)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Begin noticing what is ‘new’ or ‘interesting’ in Italian language and culture and recognising similarities and differences between Italian and Australian cultural practices and related language use
[Key concepts: self, other, respect; Key processes: noticing, identifying]
(ACLITC011)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Identify and describe aspects of self in relation to others
[Key concepts: family, self, identity; Key processes: connecting, relating, observing]
(ACLITC012)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Reproduce the sounds of the Italian language (ACLITU013)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Notice and use some aspects of the Italian language system, including gender forms, simple sentence structures and the placement of adjectives (ACLITU014)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand that language is organised as texts (ACLITU015)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that different words are used in Italian to address and greet different people according to relationship, setting and time of the day (ACLITU016)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Italian and English borrow words from each other (ACLITU017)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that Italian is one of many community languages spoken in Australia including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, Asian languages and world languages (ACLITU018)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Notice and reflect (mainly in English) on different cultural practices and the specific ways of using language in different cultures (ACLITU019)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students use Italian to communicate with their teacher and peers through action-related talk and play. They demonstrate comprehension by responding both verbally and non-verbally. They imitate simple words and phrases. They respond to familiar games and routines such as questions about self and family (for example, Come ti chiami? Dove abiti?), and choose among options, for example, in response to questions such as Vuoi il gelato o la caramella? They produce learnt sounds and formulaic expressions (for example, È bello! Non mi piace), or partial phrases, often providing only part of the required response in Italian or using a key word to convey a whole idea. They experiment with and approximate Italian pronunciation, for example, producing vowel sounds and ‘c’ and ‘ch’ pronunciation with some accuracy. They differentiate between statements and questions according to intonation. They make meaning using paralinguistic and contextual support such as pictures, gestures and props. They write descriptions, lists, labels and captions, using familiar words and phrases selected from modelled language, for example, rearranging sentence...

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By the end of Year 2, students use Italian to communicate with their teacher and peers through action-related talk and play. They demonstrate comprehension by responding both verbally and non-verbally. They imitate simple words and phrases. They respond to familiar games and routines such as questions about self and family (for example, Come ti chiami? Dove abiti?), and choose among options, for example, in response to questions such as Vuoi il gelato o la caramella? They produce learnt sounds and formulaic expressions (for example, È bello! Non mi piace), or partial phrases, often providing only part of the required response in Italian or using a key word to convey a whole idea. They experiment with and approximate Italian pronunciation, for example, producing vowel sounds and ‘c’ and ‘ch’ pronunciation with some accuracy. They differentiate between statements and questions according to intonation. They make meaning using paralinguistic and contextual support such as pictures, gestures and props. They write descriptions, lists, labels and captions, using familiar words and phrases selected from modelled language, for example, rearranging sentence patterns such as Ho sei anni. Sono bravo. Il gelato è buono.

Students know that Italian is the national language of Italy. They identify the 21 letters of the Italian alphabet. They know that simple sentences follow a pattern, and that nouns require an article and are gendered either masculine or feminine. They demonstrate understanding of the different ways of addressing friends, family and teachers/other adults. They identify patterns in Italian words and phrases and make comparisons between Italian and English. They know that languages borrow words from each other and provide examples of Italian words and expressions that are used in various English-speaking contexts. They identify similarities and differences in the cultural practices of Italians and Australians. They understand that they have their own language(s) and culture(s), and that they are also learners of Italian language and culture.

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Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups including the Italian class. They are developing literacy capabilities in English, such as writing in the Roman alphabet, which assists to some degree in learning Italian. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups including the Italian class. They are developing literacy capabilities in English, such as writing in the Roman alphabet, which assists to some degree in learning Italian. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Italian language learning and use

The development of oral proficiency requires rich language input in different modes and from different sources. Children develop active listening skills and respond through action-related talk. They strengthen their comprehension skills, using contextual and grammatical cues as well as phonic and non-verbal cues. The language they encounter is authentic, with modification when necessary, involving familiar vocabulary and simple structures. Children are supported to use the language themselves in familiar contexts and situations, such as exchanging simple ideas and information, negotiating predictable activities and interactions, and participating in shared tasks, performance and play. They continue to build vocabulary which can be adapted for different purposes, and to control simple grammatical forms to communicate in familiar contexts.

Contexts of interaction

The contexts in which learners interact in using and learning Italian are primarily local: the classroom, school, home and community, with some access to wider communities of Italian speakers and resources through virtual and digital technologies.

Texts and resources

Children develop literacy skills and textual knowledge through supported interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts (such as picture books, stories, puppet plays, songs and games) engage the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. Procedural, informational and descriptive texts (such as negotiated classroom rules, planned activities, and family and class profiles) encourage students to use language to ‘get things done’.

Features of Italian language use

Students experiment with pronunciation and intonation in Italian, noticing similarities and differences with other familiar languages. They focus on structures and grammatical rules such as those relating to the use of possessive pronouns, prepositions and negation. They extend their knowledge of definite and indefinite articles, and of gender and singular/plural forms.

As they encounter Italian language and culture they make comparisons with their own language(s) and culture(s) and consider their own ways of communicating. This leads to exploring concepts of commonality and difference, and of identity, and to thinking about what it means to speak more than one language.

Level of support

Children’s grammatical knowledge and accuracy in spoken and written Italian are developed both through form-focused activities and through opportunities to apply this knowledge in meaningful task activity, as they build their communicative skills, confidence and fluency. Teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete tasks; make time for experimentation and drafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection.

The role of English

The use of English, when appropriate, provides support opportunities for discussion and exploration of ideas which help children to build a conceptual frame and metalanguage for talking about language and culture, and about their experiences as learners moving between languages and cultures.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact and socialise with the teacher and peers to exchange personal information and describe people, places, things and everyday routines relating to self, school and home
[Key concepts: routine, home; Key processes: describing, interacting, responding]
(ACLITC020)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in collaborative action in class experiences and activities
[Key concepts: occasion, community; Key processes: describing, inviting]
(ACLITC021)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in everyday transactions to obtain goods
[Key concepts: need, desire; Key processes: deciding, negotiating]
(ACLITC022)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Participate in everyday classroom activities by asking permission, requesting help, asking how to say or write something, asking for repetition, praising or complimenting
[Key concepts: collaboration, school life; Key processes: negotiating, discussing, connecting]
(ACLITC023)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Obtain and process factual information about people, routines, responsibilities and interests
[Key concepts: routine, events, time; Key processes: identifying, recording, categorising, selecting]
(ACLITC024)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Give factual information about people, objects, places and events in texts supported by graphics or illustrations
[Key concepts: information, fact; Key processes: describing, presenting]
(ACLITC025)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Listen to, view and read a range of imaginative texts for children, and discuss messages and impressions
[Key concepts: story, drama, message; Key processes: viewing, reading, predicting, describing, discussing; Key text types: narrative, song, poetry]
(ACLITC026)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create short, simple imaginative texts for different audiences
[Key concepts: character, narrative; Key processes: interacting, creating]
(ACLITC027)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate texts to compare meanings and share understandings about aspects of Italian language and culture that are different from English
[Key concepts: translation, comparison; Key processes: translating, explaining]
(ACLITC028)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create simple bilingual texts
[Key concepts: meaning, equivalence; Key processes: comparing, explaining]
(ACLITC029)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Compare experiences, noticing how these are influenced by language and culture and how readily they may be expressed in Italian
[Key concept: assumption; Key process: comparing]
(ACLITC030)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Express aspects of own identity reflected in various group and community memberships, including their developing bilingual identity
[Key concept: membership; Key process: representing]
(ACLITC031)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Experiment with pronunciation and intonation and use rules of spelling (ACLITU032)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Use key grammatical structures to form simple sentences, including the use of possessive pronouns, prepositions, definite and indefinite articles, and gender and singular/plural forms (ACLITU033)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise how grammatical structures are used to form simple texts (ACLITU034)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Understand that language use varies according to the participants’ age, gender and relationship, and the context of use (ACLITU035)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that languages change with use over time (ACLITU036)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Understand that Italian is spoken in a variety of forms within and outside of Italy (ACLITU037)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Compare and reflect on different cultural practices and the ways in which language use reflects culture-specific ideas (ACLITU038)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students comprehend a range of spoken, written, and multimodal texts on familiar topics, including home life, friends and classroom activities. They use Italian to communicate and to interact, for example, to exchange greetings and to address people, using appropriate language and pronunciation, and often formulaic expressions. They ask and respond to simple questions, by selecting between alternatives provided, by using short spoken responses which may consist of incomplete or partial Italian phrases and structures, or by using a key word to convey a whole idea. They talk about self, family, people, places, routine, school life and their own interests and preferences, for example, Com’è la tua casa? La mia casa è grande, Ci sono due camere da letto e due bagni. Mi piace la mia camera da letto. They use short sentences, reorganising known language to fit personal responses, for example, Giochi domani?Sì/no/Forse. Students understand short written texts, using visual cues, prediction and questioning to decipher meaning. They recall key ideas and events, recognise meanings, and respond meaningfully. Students create written texts...

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By the end of Year 4, students comprehend a range of spoken, written, and multimodal texts on familiar topics, including home life, friends and classroom activities. They use Italian to communicate and to interact, for example, to exchange greetings and to address people, using appropriate language and pronunciation, and often formulaic expressions. They ask and respond to simple questions, by selecting between alternatives provided, by using short spoken responses which may consist of incomplete or partial Italian phrases and structures, or by using a key word to convey a whole idea. They talk about self, family, people, places, routine, school life and their own interests and preferences, for example, Com’è la tua casa? La mia casa è grande, Ci sono due camere da letto e due bagni. Mi piace la mia camera da letto. They use short sentences, reorganising known language to fit personal responses, for example, Giochi domani?Sì/no/Forse. Students understand short written texts, using visual cues, prediction and questioning to decipher meaning. They recall key ideas and events, recognise meanings, and respond meaningfully. Students create written texts of a few sentences using familiar language and structures.

Students demonstrate an understanding of the fact that language is used differently in different situations and contexts. They know the importance of using appropriate language when interacting in Italian, including informal/formal language, and the use of titles and gestures. They vary their responses and statements by choosing adjectives and adverbs, and by combining sentences. They demonstrate understanding of basic Italian grammatical rules, such as the fact that nouns have masculine or feminine gender and singular and plural forms, and that nouns, adjectives and articles need to agree. They identify similarities and differences in the patterns of Italian language compared to English and other familiar languages. They create texts that show understanding of how ideas are connected and how images support the meaning of texts. They make connections to personal experience when describing characters, events or cultural practices and behaviours encountered in texts. They identify cultural differences in ways of communicating and describe similarities and differences between their own and other cultures.

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Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communicative repertoires in both their first language and Italian. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers...

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The nature of the learners

Students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communicative repertoires in both their first language and Italian. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining awareness of the world around them and of the relationship of Australia with Italy and other Italian-speaking communities. They are noticing similarities and differences between Italian language and culture and their own.

Italian language learning and use

Students’ pronunciation, intonation and phrasing are more confident, and they access wider vocabulary resources and use non-verbal strategies appropriately to support communication. They participate in shared tasks and purposeful language experiences as well as focusing explicitly on language structures and systems, literacy skills and cultural elements of communication.

Oracy development at this level includes active listening to a range of input from different sources, and building interactional skills such as maintaining conversations, turn-taking, and contributing to discussions with observations and opinions. They learn skills in ‘reading’ language for cultural and contextual meaning. Individual and group oral-presentation and performance skills are developed through researching and organising information, rehearsing and resourcing the content of presentations, and selecting appropriate language to engage particular audiences.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Italian with each other and the teacher for a range of purposes: exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, performing and responding to Italian texts and experiences. They use ICTs to interact with each other and with peers in Italian-speaking communities, exchanging resources and information, accessing music and media resources, and contributing to class activities such as a blog or webpage.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of oral, written, multimodal and digital texts that are increasingly public in nature. They use cues and decoding strategies to assist comprehension and to make connections between contexts, ideas and language within and between texts. They create texts for a range of purposes and audiences, such as emails, dialogues, public signs, presentations and performances. With support, they build cohesion into their Italian production in terms of both content and expression.

Features of Italian language use

Students increase their range of Italian language vocabulary, grammatical knowledge and textual knowledge. They learn how to describe present and immediate future actions, situations and events using familiar verbs. They use adverbs, adjectives and prepositions to create more complex sentences. They develop a metalanguage to describe patterns, rules and variations in language structures.

Learners consider how language features and expressions reflect cultural values and experiences (for example, language variation relating to gender, generation, status or cultural context). This leads to considering their own ways of communicating and to thinking about personal and community identities, stereotypes and perspectives reflected in language.

Level of support

While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support, including modelling and scaffolding, is incorporated into task activity. Ongoing feedback and review support the interactive process of learning. While first language capabilities are more developed than learners’ Italian language proficiency, learning tasks and experiences need to take account of both their second language linguistic level and their more general cognitive and social levels of development.

The role of English

The use of English, in conjunction with Italian, for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and intercultural capability and provides opportunities for learners to share understanding and experiences.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact to share interests, leisure activities, feelings, opinions and preferences
[Key concepts: leisure, neighbourhood; Key processes: exchanging, corresponding]
(ACLITC039)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Take action, make shared decisions and organise shared experiences
[Key concepts: environment, plan; Key processes: participating, reflecting]
(ACLITC040)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Sustainability

Participate in simple transactions such as purchasing and ordering goods and services
[Key concepts: service, transaction; Key processes: transacting, exchanging, planning]
(ACLITC041)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Interact in classroom activities and create shared class routines
[Key concepts: routine, class culture; Key processes: explaining, participating, sharing]
(ACLITC042)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Listen to, view and read texts and gather information from a range of sources, including concepts drawn from other learning areas
[Key concepts: lifestyle, leisure, health/wellbeing; Key processes: selecting, researching, comparing, synthesising]
(ACLITC043)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Represent information appropriately for different audiences, using a variety of modes
[Key concepts: learning area concepts; Key processes: connecting, informing]
(ACLITC044)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Creating

Share and compare opinions about ideas in imaginative texts
[Key concepts: description, story, narrative; Key processes: comparing, reviewing; Key text types: recount, narrative, biographical description]
(ACLITC045)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create imaginative texts for different audiences such as digital stories and raps using imaginary characters, places, ideas and events
[Key concepts: text, imagination; Key processes: exchanging, performing, creating; Key text types: narrative, description, song lyrics]
(ACLITC046)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate texts, recognising that words and meanings do not always correspond across languages, and expanding descriptions or giving examples where necessary to assist meaning
[Key concepts: alternative, equivalence; Key processes: translating, comparing]
(ACLITC047)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create simple bilingual texts and discuss what translates easily or not
[Key concepts: translation, explanation; Key processes: identifying, selecting, modifying]
(ACLITC048)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Compare everyday social experiences and related language use and consider own responses and reactions and those of others
[Key concept: intercultural understanding; Key processes: comparing, reflecting, connecting]
(ACLITC049)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Share aspects of own identity such as appearance, character, background, family, preferences and experiences, including own role as a learner of Italian, and consider how these aspects contribute to identity formation
[Key concept: intracultural understanding; Key processes: sharing, connecting, reflecting]
(ACLITC050)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Develop pronunciation and intonation of Italian-specific sounds (ACLITU051)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Use grammatical knowledge, to interpret and create meaning in Italian (ACLITU052)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Notice and use distinctive features of text organisation in Italian (ACLITU053)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that language use varies according to the contexts of situation and culture (ACLITU054)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise the dynamic nature of language and culture (ACLITU055)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Understand the diversity of languages and cultures represented in the classroom, and the multilingual and multicultural character of Australian society (ACLITU056)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Reflect on their own assumptions about the values, beliefs and cultural norms of Italians compared to their own (ACLITU057)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students interact using spoken and written Italian to describe and give information about themselves, family, friends, home and school routines, experiences, interests, preferences and choices. They share aspects of their environment, express opinions, for example, È buonissimo ...è molto bravo, mi piace di più ..., penso di sì/no, secondo me..., accept or reject ideas, agree and disagree, for example, No,non sono d’accordo! Hai ragione/torto. They ask simple questions, for example, Ti piace? Cosa prendi? Chi viene alla festa? Vieni anche tu? They understand the main points in spoken interactions consisting of familiar language in simple sentences. When speaking, they imitate pronunciation and intonation. They understand short written texts with some variation in sentence structures and some unfamiliar vocabulary. In reading independently, they begin to use context, questioning, and bilingual dictionaries to decode the meaning of unfamiliar language. They connect ideas in different informative and creative texts, expressing and extending personal meaning by giving reasons or drawing conclusions. Students create sentences...

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By the end of Year 6, students interact using spoken and written Italian to describe and give information about themselves, family, friends, home and school routines, experiences, interests, preferences and choices. They share aspects of their environment, express opinions, for example, È buonissimo ...è molto bravo, mi piace di più ..., penso di sì/no, secondo me..., accept or reject ideas, agree and disagree, for example, No,non sono d’accordo! Hai ragione/torto. They ask simple questions, for example, Ti piace? Cosa prendi? Chi viene alla festa? Vieni anche tu? They understand the main points in spoken interactions consisting of familiar language in simple sentences. When speaking, they imitate pronunciation and intonation. They understand short written texts with some variation in sentence structures and some unfamiliar vocabulary. In reading independently, they begin to use context, questioning, and bilingual dictionaries to decode the meaning of unfamiliar language. They connect ideas in different informative and creative texts, expressing and extending personal meaning by giving reasons or drawing conclusions. Students create sentences with some elaboration, for example, using coordinating conjunctions and comparisons to build short coherent texts on familiar topics, for example, La musica di ... è bella, ma mi piace di più ... They write descriptions, letters, messages, summaries, invitations and narratives They use the present tense of verbs, noun and adjective agreements and some adverbs; they choose vocabulary appropriate to the purpose of the interaction, such as to describe, to plan or to invite.

Students use some metalanguage to talk about both linguistic and cultural features. They discern familiar patterns and features of written and spoken language and compare them with English, understanding that language, images and other features of texts reflect culture. They demonstrate an understanding of variation in language use, adapting language forms according to audience and context. They identify linguistic and cultural differences know that Australia is a multilingual and multicultural society, and that dialects are spoken both in Italy and in Italian-speaking communities around the world. Students compare, identify and discuss their responses and reactions in intercultural exchanges.

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this pathway are continuing to study Italian, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate with some assistance about their own immediate world and that of Italy and other Italian...

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this pathway are continuing to study Italian, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate with some assistance about their own immediate world and that of Italy and other Italian-speaking communities. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in reflecting on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved.

Italian language learning and use

Learners work both collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They use modelled and rehearsed language in both familiar and unfamiliar contexts and begin to generate some original language. They work in groups to pool language knowledge and resources, and to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They are encouraged to make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural experiences and perspectives, particularly through comparison.

Contexts of interaction

Italian is used for classroom interactions and transactions, for creating and maintaining a class dynamic, for explaining and practising language forms, and for developing cultural understanding. Additional opportunities for using Italian are provided by purposeful and integrated use of ICTs.

Texts and resources

Learners read, view and interact with a widening range of texts for a variety of purposes (for example, informational, transactional, imaginative, expressive). They draw upon Italian-speaking people in the local community and beyond to extend their experience of using Italian beyond the classroom and to gain different perspectives on aspects of Italian culture. They use a range of processing strategies and draw on understanding of text conventions and patterns in language to comprehend and create texts. They are supported to identify how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices influence how people, ideas and circumstances are represented. They compose and present texts (for example, media and hypermedia texts, shared stories, poetry, songs/raps, blogs, advertisements, reports, journal entries). They plan, draft and present informative, imaginative and persuasive texts, and participate in collaborative tasks and in discussions.

Features of Italian language use

This stage involves learners consolidating their understanding and use of regular forms and familiar grammatical structures. They expand their understanding through noticing variation and non-standard forms, for example, dialects used in the local community. They also notice exceptions to rules, for example, irregular forms. They learn to experiment with past and future tenses in their own texts.

Students learn how to closely analyse the relationship between language and culture to identify cultural references in texts and consider how language communicates perspectives and values. They compare their own language(s) and Italian, and reflect on intercultural experiences, including the process of moving between languages and cultural systems.

Level of support

This is a period of reviewing and consolidating students’ prior learning and providing engaging and relevant new experiences and connections. Students continue to benefit from scaffolding and support, such as the provision of visual and contextual cues when accessing texts. They use models, teacher feedback and resources such as word lists and dictionaries when constructing their own texts.

The role of English

Italian is used in classroom routines, tasks and structured discussions. English is used, when appropriate, as a basis for comparison of language and cultural systems. It is also used to allow for explanation, reflection and substantive, open-ended discussions to support the development of the use of Italian.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate and maintain social interaction with peers and known adults by seeking and offering ideas, thoughts and feelings about people, events and experiences
[Key concepts: relationship, experience, community; Key processes: sharing perspectives, exchanging, corresponding]
(ACLITC058)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Contribute to collaborative planning of events, experiences and activities, considering options and negotiating arrangements
[Key concepts: event, celebration, experience; Key processes: negotiating, suggesting, requesting, explaining]
(ACLITC059)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in transactions related to purchasing goods and services, such as buying clothing and tickets and evaluating ‘value for money’
[Key concepts: exchange, etiquette; Key processes: transacting, negotiating, comparing]
(ACLITC060)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom activities, giving and following instructions, asking questions to clarify purpose, and describing procedures and actions taken
[Key concepts: community, classroom culture; Key processes: reflecting, explaining, exemplifying]
(ACLITC061)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Analyse, summarise and share key ideas and information from a range of texts
[Key concepts: fact/fiction, representation, perspective, choice; Key processes: identifying, comparing, sequencing]
(ACLITC062)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Convey ideas and opinions by creating spoken, written and multimodal texts
[Key concepts: youth issues, representation; Key processes: informing, persuading, responding]
(ACLITC063)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Creating

Respond to a range of imaginative texts by expressing ideas and opinions about the themes, characters, events and cultural attitudes conveyed, and relate to personal experience
[Key concepts: narrative, relationships, values; Key processes: interpreting, comparing; Key text types: story, film]
(ACLITC064)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create texts for particular audiences that depict experiences or topics of interest
[Key concepts: imagination, audience; Key processes: describing, contextualising, narrating, recounting, expressing; Key text types: narrative, description, recount]
(ACLITC065)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate texts, discussing different versions and why these might occur
[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: translating, experimenting, comparing]
(ACLITC066)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create short bilingual texts such as captions, stories and commentaries
[Key concepts: equivalence, comparison; Key processes: translating, experimenting]
(ACLITC067)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Participate in intercultural experiences to discuss cultural practices, comparing own and others’ reactions and responses
[Key concepts: cultural comfort, cultural assumption; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, questioning, relating]
(ACLITC068)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Reflect on own participation in intercultural exchange and consider how this shapes own identity over time
[Key concepts: identity, intercultural sensitivity; Key processes: comparing, reviewing, reflecting]
(ACLITC069)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Develop an understanding and use the sound system of Italian (ACLITU070)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Use grammatical knowledge to extend meanings, including knowledge of irregular, reflexive and modal verbs (ACLITU071)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Apply understanding of distinctive features of text organisation (ACLITU072)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise how language use varies depending on the context of the situation and the context of culture (ACLITU073)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise the impact of media and technology on the way Italian is changing as a language of local and international communication (ACLITU074)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Understand the value of communicating within and across languages, and discuss the interrelationship between Italian, English and other languages (ACLITU075)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Analyse the ways in which choices in everyday language use reflect cultural practices and values (ACLITU076)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Italian to interact in a range of personal and social contexts. They describe or present people, places, events or conditions; discuss likes, dislikes and preferences; present information; recount and narrate events; and talk about personal, social and school worlds, for example, Ecco mio padre. Si chiama Edoardo. Ha quarantadue anni. They understand main points and some specific details in a range of texts organised around known content and including some unfamiliar language. They express and understand feelings when corresponding with others, making connections between language used and cultural concepts expressed. They respond to and create simple informational and imaginative texts, for example, Io comincio la scuola alle otto e mezzo. Le materie che studio sono l’inglese, la matematica, le scienze e la storia. They express views on familiar topics and make comparisons, adding their own opinions or reasons, for example, Mi piace il mio amico perché è buffissimo. Mi piace anche perché è veramente intelligente. They apply their understanding that texts vary according to purpose and audience...

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By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Italian to interact in a range of personal and social contexts. They describe or present people, places, events or conditions; discuss likes, dislikes and preferences; present information; recount and narrate events; and talk about personal, social and school worlds, for example, Ecco mio padre. Si chiama Edoardo. Ha quarantadue anni. They understand main points and some specific details in a range of texts organised around known content and including some unfamiliar language. They express and understand feelings when corresponding with others, making connections between language used and cultural concepts expressed. They respond to and create simple informational and imaginative texts, for example, Io comincio la scuola alle otto e mezzo. Le materie che studio sono l’inglese, la matematica, le scienze e la storia. They express views on familiar topics and make comparisons, adding their own opinions or reasons, for example, Mi piace il mio amico perché è buffissimo. Mi piace anche perché è veramente intelligente. They apply their understanding that texts vary according to purpose and audience, and use contextual clues, questioning and bilingual dictionaries to identify, interpret and summarise the meaning of familiar and some unfamiliar language. They give some justification for their interpretations of texts. They ask questions and seek clarification. Students create cohesive and coherent texts for different purposes on a range of familiar topics, using appropriate language structures and vocabulary, including different modal verbs and tenses, for example, Non posso venire alla partita perché devo studiare. They use conjunctions, adjectives and adverbs to elaborate meanings, for example, La professoressa di matematica è molto simpatica ma il professore di educazione fisica è qualche volta troppo severo.

Students understand and use metalanguage to explain aspects of language and culture. They identify features of text types such as letters, emails, descriptions and narratives. They know that language is chosen to reflect contexts of situation and culture, and identify differences between standard, dialectal and regional forms of Italian. They analyse the impact of technology and media on communication and language forms, the influence of Italian and English on one another, and the interrelationship of language and culture. They know that languages do not always translate directly. They reflect on how they interpret and respond to intercultural experience, and to aspects of Italian language and culture, and discuss how their responses may be shaped by their own language(s) and culture(s)./

 

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring existing knowledge of Italian language and culture and a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring, but are increasingly...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring existing knowledge of Italian language and culture and a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring, but are increasingly independent in terms of analysis, reflection and monitoring of their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Italian in these.

Italian language learning and use

This is a period of experimenting with a range of modes of communication (for example, digital and hypermedia, collaborative performance and group discussions). Through their greater control of language structures and growing understanding of the variability of language use, learners become more confident in communicating in a range of contexts. Learners use Italian to interact and communicate; to access, exchange and present information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to interpret, analyse and create a range of texts and experiences. They use Italian more fluently and monitor their accuracy and use against their knowledge of grammar and associated systems. They explore intercultural experience more deliberately, for example, noting the influence of technology, media and globalisation on language use and communication.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers and teachers in their immediate school context and with members of broader Italian communities and resources available through a range of actual and virtual environments.

Texts and resources

Learners extend their familiarity with text types and language functions by balancing attention to language forms with purposeful language use. Sequences of tasks provide opportunities for collaborative planning and performance, resource development, and increased use of different language and cultural resources. Learners strengthen their communication strategies and processes of interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing in relation to a widening range of texts. Media resources, fiction and nonfiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance (for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationships, and linguistic and cultural diversity). Learners develop critical analysis skills to investigate texts and to identify how language choices shape perspectives and meaning, and how those choices are in turn shaped by context and intention. They learn to consider different viewpoints and experiences, and analyse their own linguistic and cultural stance, and beliefs and practices that influence communication and intercultural exchange.

Features of Italian language use

The focus of learning Italian shifts to expanding learners’ range and control of the linguistic systems to develop the sophistication of language use. They learn to choose appropriate tenses, to identify and create mood, and to use cohesive devices to create extended texts such as narratives, reports and dialogues. They continue to build a metalanguage, using specific terms to assist understanding and control of grammar and textual conventions (for example, adverbs, conditional, imperative, subjunctive, past tenses, reflexive verbs).

Level of support

Learners are encouraged to develop greater autonomy, to self-monitor, and to adjust language in response to their experience in different contexts. They develop independent skills to access resources such as textbooks, dictionaries and online translators, and to critically evaluate the effectiveness of such resources and their role in learning and communicating. Students continue to benefit from scaffolding and support to access and create increasingly complex texts, such as the provision of visual and contextual cues.

The role of English

Italian is used for interaction within and beyond the classroom, for task accomplishment and for some discussion of ideas in texts. English is used, as and when appropriate, to facilitate comparison, evaluation, reflection and substantive discussion.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate, sustain and extend discussions related to aspirations, relationships and contemporary social issues
[Key concepts: relationship, youth, experience; Key processes: discussing, debating, explaining, corresponding]
(ACLITC077)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions in interactions related to shared tasks and problem-solving, managing diverse views
[Key concepts: perspective, diversity, collaboration; Key processes: discussing, organising, planning, negotiating]
(ACLITC078)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Participate in spoken or written transactions to obtain goods and services, including expressing views on quality and making complaints and recommendations
[Key concepts: negotiation, value; Key processes: interacting, persuading, complaining]
(ACLITC079)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Interact in discussions by questioning, making suggestions and expressing opinions, and reflect on experiences of classroom interactions
[Key concepts: interaction, relationship, perspective; Key processes: expressing, questioning, reflecting]
(ACLITC080)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Analyse, synthesise and evaluate ideas and information from multiple sources on a range of contemporary issues
[Key concepts: perspectives, representation, bias; Key processes: interpreting, evaluating, summarising, connecting, analysing]
(ACLITC081)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Give information in different forms, offering own views in relation to the content and considering the significance for particular audiences
[Key concepts: media, message, opinion; Key processes: designing, evaluating, persuading]
(ACLITC082)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Read, discuss and review a range of imaginative texts and respond by expressing opinions, explaining the themes, discussing characters, and considering language use and cultural meanings
[Key concepts: imagination, emotion, voice; Key processes: interpreting, comparing; Key text types: short story, biography, film, poem, song]
(ACLITC083)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create a range of imaginative texts, considering how to represent ideas, characters and events
[Key concepts: emotion, expression, choice, voice, stance; Key processes: composing, reviewing, considering impact; Key text types: song, poem, story, drama]
(ACLITC084)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate a range of texts and discuss how to convey concepts across different linguistic and cultural contexts
[Key concepts: representation, sensitivity, equivalence; Key processes: translating, reviewing, comparing]
(ACLITC085)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts that reveal aspects of Australian culture for Italian-speaking audiences and vice versa
[Key concepts: cultural positioning, sensitivity; Key processes: translating, captioning]
(ACLITC086)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on participation in intercultural exchange, taking responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding
[Key concepts: meaning, representation, history/origin, understanding; Key processes: comparing, reflecting]
(ACLITC087)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Investigate and share family and cultural traditions and experiences, considering how these have shaped and continue to shape personal identity
[Key concepts: membership, self/other, identity, multiplicity; Key processes: reflecting, explaining]
(ACLITC088)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Use appropriate Italian pronunciation, stress and intonation in increasingly complex sentences and texts (ACLITU089)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Extend grammatical knowledge, including present, past and future tenses, and the conditional and subjunctive mood, to interpret and create meaning in texts (ACLITU090)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse and apply linguistic, cultural and textual features of specific text types (ACLITU091)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Investigate how language varies according to context and speakers (ACLITU092)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Recognise how Italian language and culture have evolved and how they continue to change over time due to influences such as changing contexts and intercultural contact (ACLITU093)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that language use has the power to influence social relationships, beliefs and values (ACLITU094)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Analyse how linguistic choices construct and reflect ideas, practices and values, and consider how these influence the exchange of meaning (ACLITU095)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Italian to interact with others in a range of contexts and for a range of purposes. They discuss topics such as education, work, the environment and youth issues as well as concepts from a range of learning areas. They recount experiences, and express feelings and opinions, agreement and disagreement, using present, past and future tenses, and linking statements with both coordinating and subordinating conjunctions, for example, Era stanca, così non è uscita. Non mi piace quel romanzo perché è triste! Prima siamo andati al cinema, poi siamo andati a prendere un gelato. They demonstrate grammatical control when using complex sentences. They create a range of connected texts and interact with some degree of personalisation on a variety of subjects related to their own interests. In classroom discussions, they present and communicate personal thoughts and opinions, and account for and sustain a particular point of view, for example, Non c’ è dubbio che … Credo che questi articoli offrano solo un punto di vista. They identify key ideas in different text types dealing with both concrete...

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By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Italian to interact with others in a range of contexts and for a range of purposes. They discuss topics such as education, work, the environment and youth issues as well as concepts from a range of learning areas. They recount experiences, and express feelings and opinions, agreement and disagreement, using present, past and future tenses, and linking statements with both coordinating and subordinating conjunctions, for example, Era stanca, così non è uscita. Non mi piace quel romanzo perché è triste! Prima siamo andati al cinema, poi siamo andati a prendere un gelato. They demonstrate grammatical control when using complex sentences. They create a range of connected texts and interact with some degree of personalisation on a variety of subjects related to their own interests. In classroom discussions, they present and communicate personal thoughts and opinions, and account for and sustain a particular point of view, for example, Non c’ è dubbio che … Credo che questi articoli offrano solo un punto di vista. They identify key ideas in different text types dealing with both concrete and abstract topics. They follow the development and relationship of ideas, identifying, for example, identifying sequencing, cause and effect, and consequences. They compare and evaluate ideas across languages and cultures, for example, Secondo me … dal mio punto di vista … per quanto mi riguarda. I giovani italiani sono più interessati nella politica. They discuss future plans and aspirations. Students develop and defend interpretations of texts and diverse points of view, and elaborate, clarify and qualify ideas using supporting evidence and argument. They present real or imaginary events and experiences in narratives, descriptions and recounts. They translate texts and produce bilingual texts, recognising that not all concepts can necessarily be rendered fully in another language.

Students reflect on their experience of learning Italian language and culture. They exchange opinions and responses, noting how these may have changed over time. They identify ways in which writers and speakers make choices when using language, and make connections between language used, cultural concepts expressed and their own experiences or views. They reflect on their own and others’ use of language, the language choices made, and the cultural assumptions or understandings which shape them. They analyse how culture affects communication and the making and interpreting of meaning, and how languages reflect cultures.

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