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  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with...

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Indonesian language and culture.

Indonesian language learning and use

In these years there is an emphasis on developing learners’ oral language to enable them to participate in class activities such as shared reading, chants, rhymes, songs and games. They repeat sounds, particularly of vowels, the letter c (ch) and r (trilled), as modelled by the teacher and aural texts. Learners use formulaic language and single-idea phrases. They will recognise the same alphabet as they are learning for writing English and need to observe that some letters have different sounds (for example, c = ch). Learners write by tracing and copying, forming letters legibly. They learn to write words and sentences independently using modelled language, for example, matching pictures with single words, labels and captions.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for interaction is the language classroom, with the teacher of Indonesian, and peers or buddy classmates. Learners’ use of Indonesian primarily relates to classroom routines and activities, drawing on their curiosity about the world around them and their interest in play, movement and games.

Texts and resources

Written texts include children’s stories and big books, and teacher-generated materials such as pictures with labels and descriptions. Learners listen to, read and view texts, including digital forms such as videos, songs and children’s programs. They respond to teacher generated resources such as cloze, substitution or matching exercises, and produce texts such as captions and recounts using formulaic language, for example, Pada hari…, saya

Features of Indonesian language use

Students are learning the sounds and written form of Indonesian. They are noticing similarities and differences between Indonesian and English, such as similar vocabulary and word order and differences in the position of adjectives and possessive pronouns Learners ask questions in English about Indonesia and Indonesians. With teacher support, they discuss language and culture in terms of what is the same or different and compare with ‘what is said and done’ in their own language and culture.

Level of support

Support is provided through visual and tactile materials, such as pictures, realia, objects and charts, and the use of gesture and movement. The main source of support is the teacher’s talk, such as questions and statements, explanations, prompts, recycling of language, stories and feedback. Learners rely on modelled language and scaffolded tasks to create their own texts, for example, choosing words to complete sentences or using pictures to sequence captions.

The role of English

Indonesian is used in class interactions and daily routines such as opening and closing of lessons. Indonesian is used by the teacher to model new language, process texts and guide interaction, for example, Ini siapa?, Di mana Hasan? English is used when describing aspects of language and culture such as word order and cultural practices.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Participate in structured play and class activities, exchanging with peers and teacher greetings and information about self, family and interests
[Key concepts: self, family; Key processes: playing, imitating]
(ACLINC001)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in guided group activities such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement, gesture and pictures to support meaning
[Key concept: play; Key processes: singing, chanting, drawing]
(ACLINC002)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate with teacher and peers in class routines and activities, including following instructions and taking turns
[Key concepts: routine, sharing; Key processes: shared reading, following instructions]
(ACLINC003)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Locate specific words and familiar phrases in texts such as charts, lists and songs, and use information to complete guided oral and written tasks
[Key concepts: literacy, numeracy; Key processes: selecting, sorting, matching]
(ACLINC004)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Give factual information about self, family and significant objects using labels, captions and descriptions
[Key concepts: self, favourite; Key processes: describing, showing]
(ACLINC005)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Participate in shared reading and play-acting, and respond through singing, chanting, action and movement
[Key concepts: character, story; Key processes: playing, choral reading; Key text types: fairy tale, fable, comic, cartoon, song, rhyme]
(ACLINC006)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Use familiar words, phrases and patterns to create captions and participate in shared performances and games
[Key concept: performance; Key processes: performing, singing, dancing; Key text types: chant, song, poster, puppet show]
(ACLINC007)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate familiar words and phrases, using visual cues and word lists, noticing how words may have similar or different meanings
[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key process: noticing]
(ACLINC008)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create captions, labels and statements for the immediate learning environment in both Indonesian and English
[Key concepts: etiquette, respect, equivalence; Key processes: labelling, displaying]
(ACLINC009)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Notice what may look or feel similar or different to own language and culture when interacting in Indonesian
[Key concepts: communication, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing]
(ACLINC010)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Describe aspects of self such as family, school/class, gender and language/s, noticing how these are part of one’s identity
[Key concept: self; Key processes: describing, noticing]
(ACLINC011)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Reproduce the sound and spelling of the vowels and the letters c (ch) and trilled r, and recognise that Indonesian is written using the Roman alphabet
[Key concept: pronunciation; Key processes: reading aloud, mimicking]
(ACLINU012)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Recognise questions, commands and simple subject-focus sentences, and develop vocabulary for people, places and things in their personal world
[Key concepts: possession, word order; Key processes: naming, noticing patterns]
(ACLINU013)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand that language is organised as ‘text’, and recognise features of texts such as songs, chants, labels and captions
[Key concept: text; Key processes: recognising, identifying]
(ACLINU014)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that ways of greeting and addressing others may change according to cultural norms
[Key concepts: appropriateness, respect; Key processes: noticing, selecting]
(ACLINU015)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Develop awareness that Indonesian and English borrow from each other.
[Key concept: borrowing; Key process: observing]
(ACLINU016)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Notice that the languages people use and the way they use them relate to who they are and where and how they live.
[Key concepts: norm, culture; Key process: making connections]
(ACLINU017)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with teachers and peers through play- and action-related language. They use greetings such as Selamat pagi/siang and respond to instructions such as Berdirilah, Masuklah through actions. Students pronounce the vowel sounds, and c (ch). They respond to questions (for example Apa? Siapa? Berapa?) with responses that include ya/tidak, verbs such as ada/mau/suka/bisa/boleh, and/or names and numbers (up to ten). They identify specific words or items in oral and written texts such as names of objects and people, and respond by using actions or drawing or labelling a picture. They present factual information at word and simple sentence level, such as lists, labels, descriptions and sharing/news reports, relying on formulaic language and modelled examples. They show comprehension and create simple texts such as a description, story or comic by matching pictures and captions. They use vocabulary related to their class and home environments. Students use simple verbs such as lari, main, makan and use the pronouns saya, kamu and Pak/Bu to address others. Students comment on similarities and differences in meanings of words, noticing that some cannot...

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By the end of Year 2, students interact with teachers and peers through play- and action-related language. They use greetings such as Selamat pagi/siang and respond to instructions such as Berdirilah, Masuklah through actions. Students pronounce the vowel sounds, and c (ch). They respond to questions (for example Apa? Siapa? Berapa?) with responses that include ya/tidak, verbs such as ada/mau/suka/bisa/boleh, and/or names and numbers (up to ten). They identify specific words or items in oral and written texts such as names of objects and people, and respond by using actions or drawing or labelling a picture. They present factual information at word and simple sentence level, such as lists, labels, descriptions and sharing/news reports, relying on formulaic language and modelled examples. They show comprehension and create simple texts such as a description, story or comic by matching pictures and captions. They use vocabulary related to their class and home environments. Students use simple verbs such as lari, main, makan and use the pronouns saya, kamu and Pak/Bu to address others. Students comment on similarities and differences in meanings of words, noticing that some cannot be readily translated, for example, takraw. They comment on aspects of using Indonesian and express feelings about learning Indonesian.

Students know that Indonesian is written using the same alphabet as English but that some sounds are different. They know that they communicate in English (and possibly other languages) and that Indonesian is spoken in a country called Indonesia. They identify Indonesian words that are similar to English, for example, buku, komputer and es krim. Students identify some distinctive Indonesian words such as komodo, durian and kancil. They know that language and culture are related.

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Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Indonesian class. They have developed initial literacy in English, and this assists to some degree in learning Indonesian, such as writing in the Roman alphabet. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Indonesian class. They have developed initial literacy in English, and this assists to some degree in learning Indonesian, such as writing in the Roman alphabet. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners participate orally in classroom routines and tasks, and share ideas about how Indonesian works. They respond to teacher-generated questions about texts, participate in games and give brief presentations about topics such as family, pets, or a favourite game or object. Learners follow instructions, read stories and captions, and use computer games for word building and language exercises. They participate in shared reading and create texts such as descriptions, captions and simple reports using modelled language.

Contexts of interaction

The context in which learners use Indonesian is primarily the language classroom and the school environment, with some sharing of their language learning at home. They may also have some access to Indonesian speakers and resources through audiovisual and digital technologies.

Texts and resources

Learners typically interact with teacher-generated materials, games and songs, and materials produced for learning Indonesian, such as computer games, cards and readers. They may be exposed to texts developed for children in Indonesia, such as television programs, advertisements or web pages, as a way of developing their cultural awareness.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are increasingly aware that Indonesian is used by millions of speakers who do not have English as their first language. They notice and question aspects of Indonesian language and culture such as sounds, gestures and word order. They are developing a wide range of vocabulary and simple conjunctions to generate their own ideas in structured tasks. They explore cultural traditions and practices and the language associated with these.

Level of support

The primary support for learners is the teacher of Indonesian, who provides instruction, explanation, examples, repetition, reinforcement and feedback. Learners create their own texts based on modelled language and teacher guidance. Supports also include word lists, pictures, body language, realia and multimedia equipment.

The role of English

Learners use Indonesian for classroom routines and structured learning tasks, and listening to and viewing Indonesian texts. They are supported by the teacher to notice and discuss aspects of Indonesian language and culture, and compare Indonesian to other known languages and cultures. English is used for class discussions when noticing, comparing and reflecting on both English and Indonesian languages and cultures.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Share with peers and teacher information about aspects of personal world such as daily routines, home, and favourite objects and pastimes
[Key concepts: routine, occasion; Key processes: describing, sharing]
(ACLINC018)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Contribute to class activities such as solving a problem, creating a display or conducting a role-play/scenario
[Key concept: collaboration; Key processes: problem solving, participating]
(ACLINC019)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Respond to questions, instructions and requests, and participate in routine exchanges
[Key concepts: respect, sopan santun; Key processes: interacting, responding]
(ACLINC020)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Obtain and share information from peers and texts related to family, home, routines and interests
[Key concepts: routine, pastimes; Key processes: selecting, tabulating, categorising]
(ACLINC021)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present information about school and neighbourhood using tables, lists and descriptions
[Key concept: data; Key processes: informing, organising]
(ACLINC022)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Listen to, read and view creative texts such as rhymes, songs and stories, identifying characters and acting out events
[Key concepts: character, plot; Key processes: performing, recounting; Key text types: fable, legend, song, children’s television]
(ACLINC023)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Create texts such as dialogues and stories, using formulaic expressions and modelled language
[Key concepts: humour, imagination; Key processes: presenting, creating; Key text types: play, poem]
(ACLINC024)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate using textual cues such as pictures, layout and key words to predict meaning, and comment on the non-equivalence of words due to cultural differences
[Key concepts: gist, meaning; Key processes: translating, predicting]
(ACLINC025)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Produce texts such as descriptions and signs in both Indonesian and English for the school community
[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key processes: describing, captioning]
(ACLINC026)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Communicate in Indonesian using routine phrases and expressions, recognising that such language reflects cultural practices and norms
[Key concepts: politeness, etiquette; Key processes: experimenting, connecting]
(ACLINC027)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Interact with others and noticing how identity matters, such as in use of terms of address, who and what is included, and what language is used
[Key concept: membership; Key processes: interacting, noticing]
(ACLINC028)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise and reproduce pronunciation conventions, including loan words from English and intonation for questions, statements and commands.
[Key concept: intonation; Key processes: imitating, discriminating sounds]
(ACLINU029)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Develop understanding of ways to express possession and describe qualities of people and objects, and expand vocabulary related to personal and social world
[Key concepts: action, sequence; Key processes: describing, relating, predicting]
(ACLINU030)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that texts such as stories, games and conversations have particular features
[Key concept: genre; Key processes: observing patterns, distinguishing]
(ACLINU031)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Understand that language varies according to age, gender and social position, such as place in the family
[Key concept: status; Key processes: observing, comparing]
(ACLINU032)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia and is one of many languages in the Asia-Pacific region
[Key concept: official language; Key process: understanding]
(ACLINU033)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Make connections between cultural practices and language use, such as specific vocabulary and expressions
[Key concept: diversity; Key processes: comparing, connecting]
(ACLINU034)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact in classroom routines and structured interactions with teachers and peers. They reproduce the sounds of au (for example, mau) and g (for example, gemuk) and the final sound k (for example, tidak). Students follow instructions (such as Duduklah or Bukalah bukumu), make requests and respond with actions. They respond to questions such as Di mana? Kapan? Apakah?, by using simple phrases. They engage with texts, relying on graphics, key words and examples to support understanding, and respond using formulaic language. Students present factual information in texts through, for example, describing, listing and using tables. They work with modelled language to create their own texts, such as sequencing pictures and statements to create a comic and using word lists to complete a paragraph or simple story. Students use vocabulary related to school (such as buku, pensil, kursi), home (such as rumah, kamar, mobil) and some interests (such as suka main komputer, berenang, naik sepeda) to create simple informative and descriptive texts. They describe amounts using cardinal numbers with belas and puluh, and create plurals by doubling nouns. Students...

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By the end of Year 4, students interact in classroom routines and structured interactions with teachers and peers. They reproduce the sounds of au (for example, mau) and g (for example, gemuk) and the final sound k (for example, tidak). Students follow instructions (such as Duduklah or Bukalah bukumu), make requests and respond with actions. They respond to questions such as Di mana? Kapan? Apakah?, by using simple phrases. They engage with texts, relying on graphics, key words and examples to support understanding, and respond using formulaic language. Students present factual information in texts through, for example, describing, listing and using tables. They work with modelled language to create their own texts, such as sequencing pictures and statements to create a comic and using word lists to complete a paragraph or simple story. Students use vocabulary related to school (such as buku, pensil, kursi), home (such as rumah, kamar, mobil) and some interests (such as suka main komputer, berenang, naik sepeda) to create simple informative and descriptive texts. They describe amounts using cardinal numbers with belas and puluh, and create plurals by doubling nouns. Students state preferences using Saya [tidak] suka…, and use adjectives, including adjectives of size and colour (for example, besar, merah, tinggi, lucu), following the noun. They create subject-focus sentences, and use simple possessive word order such as teman saya or rumahnya, the prepositions di and ke, and the conjunction dan. Students translate texts using word lists and dictionaries, identifying words and expressions that do not have word-to-word equivalence, such as ‘footy’ or becak. They observe how language use, including their own, is influenced by culture and notice how it can influence intercultural experiences.

Students differentiate statements from questions according to intonation. They state that possessive word order in Indonesian differs from English. Students know that language use varies according to who is using it and with whom such as kamu for friends and Bu/Pak for teachers, and that some terms have specific cultural meanings, such as pronouns derived from family terms (for example, Bapak/Pak, Ibu/Bu). They make comparisons between Indonesian and English, particularly identifying similarities and differences in cultural practices related to daily routines and special occasions.

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Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communication repertoire in both their first language and Indonesian. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers...

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The nature of the learners

Students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communication repertoire in both their first language and Indonesian. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining awareness of the world around them and the proximity of Indonesia to Australia. Learners are noticing similarities and differences between Indonesian language and culture and their own.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners use formulaic phrases in Indonesian to participate in classroom routines, presentations and structured conversations with the teacher and peers. They focus on aspects of their personal world and are introduced to content related to Indonesia and other learning areas. Learners develop oral language through scaffolded tasks and texts such as songs, descriptions and stories. They extend their oral fluency by focusing on sentence-level intonation and stress.

In pairs and as a class, learners read texts such as signs, posters, scripts, lyrics and instructions (for example, for recipes or games). They are learning to apply their knowledge of key words and textual features to predict the meaning of unfamiliar language. Learners use modelled language to create texts such as a class story, script or contribution to a wiki space. They require opportunities to extend their language use by expressing ideas through expanding and connecting sentences.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Indonesian to interact with the teacher and classmates, and may use technology to communicate with peers in Indonesia. Tasks are typically structured, collaborative and at times competitive, such as a group performance, class display or games. Learners may notice use of Indonesian in the community, such as in the media.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of published texts such as readers, songs and computer games, as well as those prepared by the teacher of Indonesian, including language exercises, games and presentations. In addition, learners gain exposure to Indonesian language and culture through texts created for the Indonesian community, such as websites, music clips and television programs.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are expanding their knowledge of vocabulary and sentence construction. They develop a range of ber- verbs, simple conjunctions and prepositions, noticing that sentences follow a similar word order to English, apart from possessive pronouns and adjectives. They need to develop a metalanguage for describing aspects of Indonesian language and how it works. They are increasingly aware of the connection between language and cultural practices (for example, tawar-menawar, selamatan) and compare such connections to their own language and culture.

Level of support

Supports provided by the teacher at this level include explicit instruction, description, and comparison of Indonesian and English, modelled language use and examples of texts, and feedback on student work. Learners need practice and guidance in using dictionaries and access to word charts, vocabulary lists and examples when translating and creating texts.

The role of English

Indonesian is used for classroom routines and language learning tasks and may be used as the language of instruction for learning the content of other learning areas. The language of response varies according to task demands, with Indonesian used primarily for communicating in structured and supported tasks, and English (and other known languages) used for open-ended, comparative tasks that develop learners’ understanding of language and culture.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with peers to describe aspects of daily life, school, friends and pastimes
[Key concepts: friendship, leisure; Key processes: corresponding, interacting]
(ACLINC035)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Collaborate with peers to plan and conduct a shared event or activity such as hosting a class guest or working with a buddy class
[Key processes: planning, organising, negotiating]
(ACLINC036)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom interactions and structured tasks by asking and responding to questions, seeking permission and expressing preferences
[Key concepts: collaboration, responsibility; Key processes: requesting, interacting]
(ACLINC037)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Locate, classify and compare factual information from texts about aspects of daily life and significant events across cultures
[Key concepts: lifestyle, event; Key processes: classifying, comparing]
(ACLINC038)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Convey information about aspects of language and culture using diagrams, charts, timelines, descriptions and guided reports
[Key concept: literacy; Key processes: describing, reporting]
(ACLINC039)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Engage with texts such as cartoons, dialogues and fairy tales, and respond by describing aspects such as characters and actions
[Key concepts: fact, fiction; Key process: describing; Key text types: story, script, cartoon]
(ACLINC040)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Compose and perform texts such as a skit, rap or video clip, based on a stimulus, concept or theme
[Key concepts: imagination, drama; Key processes: performing, composing; Key text types: dialogue, narrative]
(ACLINC041)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate texts from Indonesian to English and vice versa, selecting from possible choices to create appropriate meaning
[Key concept: meaning; Key processes: translating, selecting]
(ACLINC042)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create for the school community simple bilingual texts such as reports, instructions and games
[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: comparing, modifying]
(ACLINC043)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Engage in intercultural experiences, describing aspects that are unfamiliar or uncomfortable and discussing own reactions and adjustments
[Key concepts: reaction, strangeness; Key processes: accommodating/rejecting, suggesting]
(ACLINC044)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Share experiences of learning and using Indonesian, and comment on aspects that have been accepted or rejected and how this has impacted on own identity
[Key concepts: belonging, identity; Key processes: recording, evaluating]
(ACLINC045)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Notice pronunciation of phonemes such as ng/ngg/ny, and notice the difference in pronunciation of loan words from English
[Key concepts: loan, emphasis; Key processes: experimenting, predicting]
(ACLINU046)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Understand how to express actions and events in time and place using prepositions, and continue to expand knowledge of ber- verbs and vocabulary
[Key concepts: time, place; Key processes: applying, understanding]
(ACLINU047)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Develop understanding of how grammatical structures and rules influence textual organisation
[Key concept: coherence; Key processes: connecting, applying]
(ACLINU048)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Develop awareness that language use reflects different contexts, purposes and audiences
[Key concepts: social distance/intimacy, context; Key processes: analysing, predicting]
(ACLINU049)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Indonesian contains influences from other languages, such as regional and foreign languages
[Key concepts: change, borrowing; Key processes: identifying, discussing]
(ACLINU050)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Recognise that language and culture are integral to the nature of identity and communication
[Key concept: assumptions; Key processes: exploring, examining connections]
(ACLINU051)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use Indonesian to convey information about themselves, their family and friends, and daily routines and activities. They locate specific details and use familiar words and phrases to predict meanings in texts. They respond to and create texts to describe and share factual and imaginative ideas and experiences, using formulaic phrases and modelled language. Students produce ng/ny/ngg sounds, and apply knowledge of pronunciation and spelling to predict the sound, spelling and meaning of new words. They ask and respond to questions using Apa?, Siapa? Berapa? and Di mana?, and interact spontaneously with peers in discussions on familiar topics. Students use subject-focus construction with a range of ber- verbs (such as bermain, berjalan, bercakap-cakap, berenang) and formulaic me- verbs (such as membaca, mendengarkan, menonton). They express numbers using ratus and ribu, and describe character and appearance using noun + adjective word order, (for example, Rumah Budi besar; Dia tinggi dan lucu). Students use possessive word order (for example, Nama teman saya…) and describe events in time using pada with whole numbers and days of the week. They...

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By the end of Year 6, students use Indonesian to convey information about themselves, their family and friends, and daily routines and activities. They locate specific details and use familiar words and phrases to predict meanings in texts. They respond to and create texts to describe and share factual and imaginative ideas and experiences, using formulaic phrases and modelled language. Students produce ng/ny/ngg sounds, and apply knowledge of pronunciation and spelling to predict the sound, spelling and meaning of new words. They ask and respond to questions using Apa?, Siapa? Berapa? and Di mana?, and interact spontaneously with peers in discussions on familiar topics. Students use subject-focus construction with a range of ber- verbs (such as bermain, berjalan, bercakap-cakap, berenang) and formulaic me- verbs (such as membaca, mendengarkan, menonton). They express numbers using ratus and ribu, and describe character and appearance using noun + adjective word order, (for example, Rumah Budi besar; Dia tinggi dan lucu). Students use possessive word order (for example, Nama teman saya…) and describe events in time using pada with whole numbers and days of the week. They use prepositions (such as di atas/dalam/belakang), and conjunctions (such as karena and tetapi). They translate texts, relying on key words and formulaic expressions, describing how meanings may vary across languages and cultures. Students identify aspects of language use that relate to people’s (including their own) cultural perspectives and experiences.

Students know that Indonesian is a language system that has rules, and that word order in (subject-focus) sentences is similar to English. They identify features of texts such as adjectives in descriptions, superlatives in advertisements and imperatives in signs. Students know that language use varies according to age, relationships and situation, particularly in relation to terms of address and the nature of what is discussed. They identify loan words from English and their Indonesian spelling (televisi) and pronunciation (kriket). They describe similarities and differences between aspects of language and culture, such as celebrations (for example Idul Fitri and Hari Ulang Tahun), leisure (for example, takraw, bulu tangkis) and the environment (for example, desa, hutan). Students know that in both Indonesian and English some terms and expressions reflect culture-specific items and practices (for example, Selamat siang, mandi, guling) that cannot be directly translated.

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school, and students in this pathway are continuing to study Indonesian, bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and Indonesia. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in considering intercultural...

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school, and students in this pathway are continuing to study Indonesian, bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and Indonesia. They have experience in analysing the major features of the language system and in considering intercultural exchanges, including their role in these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners interact using Indonesian in classroom routines and communicative tasks. They give presentations and participate in dialogues, with some preparation and support, such as cue cards. They respond to short texts in Indonesian, locating specific details and gist. Learners are extending the range and quality of their writing through increased vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and by drafting and editing their own work and that of their peers. They recognise text-type features and use models to create a range of texts, including descriptions, recounts and reflections.

Contexts of interaction

The primary context for learning remains the Indonesian language class; however, there may be opportunities for interacting with peers in Indonesia and with other learners of Indonesian, such as through technology and sister school relationships. Learners may be exposed to Indonesian speakers, media and community events.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of increasingly complex texts specifically designed for learning Indonesian in schools, such as textbooks, videos, stories and online resources. Use of authentic texts created for the Indonesian-speaking community, such as songs, films (with subtitles), websites, advertisements, and excerpts from stories, provides opportunities to extend learners’ understanding of language and culture.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners are extending their grammatical knowledge, such as how language structures and features are used in texts. They are increasingly aware of connections between language and culture, noticing, for example, degrees of formality in language use according to social relationships. Learners are exploring cultural concepts evident in Indonesian, such as gotong-royong, jam karet and selamatan, and comparing them to concepts in their own language and culture. They are learning to reflect on their own language and culture and how identity impacts on intercultural experiences.

Level of support

Learners require modelled language use, particularly at the paragraph and whole-text levels, and explicit instruction in grammatical knowledge, with comparison between English and Indonesian. They need support in using dictionaries, particularly in determining base words and choosing appropriate meanings for the context. Learners continue to access word lists, charts and examples to support their receptive and productive language use.

The role of English

Indonesian is used for classroom interaction, language learning tasks and experiences, and, with support, reflection on learning. Indonesian may be used for learning new content drawn from other learning areas. English is used for analysis, comparison and reflection in relation to abstract concepts.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Engage with others to exchange ideas, experiences and interests
[Key concepts: milestone, experience; Key processes: exchanging, connecting]
(ACLINC052)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Take action to make plans, solve problems and address needs such as through corresponding and transacting in real or simulated situations
[Key processes: planning, inviting, transacting]
(ACLINC053)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Interact with others by making requests, seeking clarification, checking understanding and expressing opinions
[Key concept: interaction; Key processes: requesting, clarifying]
(ACLINC054)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Identify, summarise and evaluate factual information related to topics of interest such as leisure, food and diet, entertainment and special occasions
[Key concept: data; Key processes: summarising, evaluating]
(ACLINC055)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Give presentations to describe, compare and report on experiences and topics of interest
[Key concepts: leisure, travel; Key processes: summarising, reporting]
(ACLINC056)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Respond to aspects of imaginative texts by expressing opinions and feelings about them and comparing these with imaginative texts in own language and culture
[Key concepts: moral, humour; Key processes: comparing, reviewing; Key text types: story, song, play]
(ACLINC057)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Compose individual and shared texts about imagined people, places and experiences, in order to entertain others
[Key concepts: amusement, imagination, admiration, journey; Key processes: composing, collaborating, performing; Key text types: recount, advertisement, cartoon]
(ACLINC058)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Translating

Translate and analyse a range of texts, comparing language choices and exploring differences in meanings
[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: approximating, comparing]
(ACLINC059)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts in collaboration with others for the wider community
[Key concept: interpretation; Key processes: designing, explaining]
(ACLINC060)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions with peers, comparing aspects of culture, monitoring how own culture impacts on language use and how this may enhance or inhibit understanding
[Key concept: comfort/discomfort; Key processes: monitoring, adjusting]
(ACLINC061)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Consider how own biography, including family origins, traditions and beliefs, impacts on identity and shapes own intercultural experiences
[Key concepts: perspective, biography; Key processes: analysing, reflecting]
(ACLINC062)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Notice how stress works in polysyllabic words and the use of intonation in subject-focus sentences
[Key concepts: stress, intonation; Key process: noticing emphasis]
(ACLINU063)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Develop knowledge of me- verb rules and how to link and extend ideas such as by using adverbs and cohesive devices
[Key concept: system, affixation; Key processes: applying rules, understanding]
(ACLINU064)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Expand understanding of textual conventions, particularly related to social and informational media
[Key concept: convention; Key processes: comparing, experimenting]
(ACLINU065)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that Indonesian has formal and informal forms and that their style and use depend on the context, purpose and audience
[Key concept: register; Key processes: identifying, connecting, analysing]
(ACLINU066)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Understand that Indonesian, like other languages, continues to change over time due to influences such as globalisation and technology
[Key concept: evolution; Key processes: researching, recording]
(ACLINU067)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Understand that language is not neutral and that its use reflects cultural ideas, assumptions and perspectives
[Key concept: interdependence; Key processes: analysing, interpreting, reflecting]
(ACLINU068)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use Indonesian to interact and exchange ideas, experiences and interests with teachers, peers and others. They pronounce familiar polysyllabic words such as mendengarkan, pekerjaan and mengerjakan, stressing the penultimate syllable. When interacting, they ask questions using for example Apakah?, Di mana?, Kapan?, Berapa?, and respond to questions using, for example, Setuju tidak? Benar/Salah, and asking follow up questions using, for example, Kapan? Bagaimana? Mengapa? They explain and clarify their answers using, for example, karena, or supaya. Students give opinions using for example Pada pendapat saya…, saya kira…, setuju/tidak setuju, make comparisons using lebih… daripada…, and state preferences using saya lebih suka…, yang paling baik… They locate and evaluate factual information in texts, and use models to create their own informative and imaginative texts in order to narrate, correspond with and report to others. . They vary their sentence construction (for example, rambut saya hitam/Ibu berambut cokelat/Bapak mempunyai rambut pirang) to create interest for the audience. Students use cohesive devices...

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By the end of Year 8, students use Indonesian to interact and exchange ideas, experiences and interests with teachers, peers and others. They pronounce familiar polysyllabic words such as mendengarkan, pekerjaan and mengerjakan, stressing the penultimate syllable. When interacting, they ask questions using for example Apakah?, Di mana?, Kapan?, Berapa?, and respond to questions using, for example, Setuju tidak? Benar/Salah, and asking follow up questions using, for example, Kapan? Bagaimana? Mengapa? They explain and clarify their answers using, for example, karena, or supaya. Students give opinions using for example Pada pendapat saya…, saya kira…, setuju/tidak setuju, make comparisons using lebih… daripada…, and state preferences using saya lebih suka…, yang paling baik… They locate and evaluate factual information in texts, and use models to create their own informative and imaginative texts in order to narrate, correspond with and report to others. . They vary their sentence construction (for example, rambut saya hitam/Ibu berambut cokelat/Bapak mempunyai rambut pirang) to create interest for the audience. Students use cohesive devices such as time markers (for example, Besok, sebelum), adverbs of frequency (for example, biasanya, jarang, belum pernah) and conjunctions (for example, lalu, untuk). They use a range of personal pronouns such as dia, mereka, kami, kita, ber- verbs such as bersekolah, berselancar and simple me- verbs such as memasak, memakai, menjadi, mengunjungi. Students use prepositions of time using pada and place, using di (including with, for example, belakang, samping, antara). They describe qualities using colours (for example, biru tua, merah muda) and adjectives (for example, sombong, murah hati). They translate across languages, identifying where equivalence is not possible, for example, gotong royong, jam karet or ‘daylight saving’. They describe their reactions to intercultural experiences, describing aspects that do or do not fit with their own identity and considering why.

Students know that Indonesian has a base word system that works with prefixes and suffixes to create verbs and nouns, such as -an, ber- and me- words. They differentiate between similar-sounding words and how they are written (such as suka/sukar, muda/mudah), and apply spelling conventions such as ngg (tinggal) and final h (terima kasih). They describe how possessive word order differs from English and have a metalanguage to identify common features such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and subject-verb-object construction. Students identify and reproduce features of familiar text types such as salutations, narrative sequence and cohesive devices. They know that languages and cultures influence and borrow from each other. Students know that cultural values and ideas are embedded in language use, including their own, and consider where these may have come from and how they may be seen from another cultural perspective.

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning prior knowledge of Indonesian language and culture, and a range of language learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth, social and environmental issues. They require guidance in learning Indonesian; however, they are increasingly...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning prior knowledge of Indonesian language and culture, and a range of language learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth, social and environmental issues. They require guidance in learning Indonesian; however, they are increasingly independent and capable of analysis and reflection, including in relation to intercultural experiences. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how Indonesian could be part of these.

Indonesian language learning and use

Learners engage with a range of texts in Indonesian. They participate individually and in groups in tasks and experiences, such as corresponding with Indonesian peers, reviewing a video clip or planning an excursion. They participate in presentations, conversations, narration and interviews, sometimes with preparation and sometimes spontaneously. Learners acquire skills in analysing and translating increasingly complex texts, such as emails, recipes, poems, articles and songs. They use modelled language to write for personal and public purposes, such as journal entries, emails, blogs, scripts, and notes for a speech or debate.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with teachers and peers and may have access to members of the Indonesian-speaking community via online technologies. They may also encounter Indonesian in the wider community, such as in the media, film festivals, community events, guest speakers, exchange teachers/assistants or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners use a wide range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, teacher-generated materials and online resources. Their learning is enriched by exposure to a range of authentic texts from the Indonesian-speaking community, such as websites, films, stories, songs, television programs, advertisements and magazines.

Features of Indonesian language use

Learners extend their grammatical knowledge and metalanguage while beginning to explore important features of Indonesian such as register and object-focus construction. They consider connections between language and culture such as jamu, mudik, kewajiban and expressions such as Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, and make comparisons with their own language and culture. They consider language variation, including through exposure to colloquial language such as in teenage magazines and social networking sites.

Level of support

Learners are increasingly aware of and responsible for their own learning, working independently to address their needs such as by accessing technologies to memorise, learn, and expand their language repertoire. They continue to access word lists, graphic organisers, modelled texts, dictionaries and teacher feedback to interpret and create texts. They require explicit instruction of the grammatical system and opportunities to discuss, practise and apply their knowledge. They may keep records of their learning, such as through an e-journal or folio, and use these to reflect on their language learning and intercultural experiences.

The role of English

English provides a basis for linguistic and cultural comparison in learning Indonesian. English is also the medium for expressing experiences, abstract ideas and personal views at a level beyond learners’ range in Indonesian, such as justifying a position on a social issue or exploring linguistic and cultural practices. English may be used in conjunction with Indonesian to conduct research (such as investigating a social issue or cultural practice), in translating, and in communicating bilingually.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Build relationships by sharing personal opinions, memories and feelings about aspects of childhood, teenage life and aspirations
[Key concepts: youth, memory; Key processes: developing relationships, building connections]
(ACLINC069)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Take responsibility by initiating interactions, solving problems and encouraging others to act
[Key processes: discussing, persuading]
(ACLINC070)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Engage in language learning tasks and experiences through discussion, justifying opinions and reflecting on own language learning
[Key concept: metalanguage; Key processes: justifying, reflecting]
(ACLINC071)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Investigate, synthesise and evaluate information from a range of perspectives in relation to topical issues and concepts from a range of learning areas
[Key concepts: representation, bias; Key processes: synthesising, evaluating]
(ACLINC072)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Construct and present a range of texts (such as presentations, reports and reviews) related to social issues and topics of interest
[Key concepts: society, environment, media; Key processes: constructing, persuading]
(ACLINC073)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Sustainability
Creating

Engage with a variety of imaginative texts, analysing ideas and values, discussing responses and altering key aspects
[Key concept: values; Key processes: analysing, interpreting, modifying; Key text types: song, poetry, script]
(ACLINC074)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create a variety of imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values, for a range of audiences
[Key concept: entertainment; Key processes: expressing, adapting; Key text types: drama, poetry, rap, cartoon]
(ACLINC075)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding
Translating

Translate a range of informative, literary and personal texts, comparing interpretations and explaining how cultural perspectives and concepts have been represented
[Key concept: representation; Key processes: interpreting, comparing, explaining]
(ACLINC076)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create parallel texts in Indonesian and in English for a range of purposes and audiences, for the wider community
[Key concept: bilinguality; Key processes: adjusting, interpreting, reflecting]
(ACLINC077)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Make choices while using Indonesian, recognising own assumptions and taking responsibility for modifying language for different cultural perspectives
[Key concept: mutual understanding; Key processes: adapting, taking responsibility]
(ACLINC078)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Engage in intercultural experiences, reflecting on how aspects of identity such as ethnicity and religion influence language use and understanding of the experience
[Key concepts: image, identity; Key processes: explaining, reflecting]
(ACLINC079)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand pronunciation and intonation conventions, and apply to new words with affixation and a range of complex sentences
[Key concept: fluency; Key processes: prioritising, emphasising]
(ACLINU080)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse complex noun and verb forms, and recognise when and how to use object-focus construction
[Key concept: passive voice, transitivity; Key processes: analysing, manipulating]
(ACLINU081)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise the purpose and features of a range of texts such as persuasive, argumentative and expository texts
[Key concepts: perspective, nuance; Key processes: analysing, correlating]
(ACLINU082)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Analyse the ways in which Indonesian varies according to spoken and written forms, cultural context and subcultures
[Key concepts: norms, variation; Key processes: analysing, explaining]
(ACLINU083)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand the power of language to influence people’s actions, values and beliefs, and appreciate the value of linguistic diversity
[Key concept: power; Key processes: critical analysis, appreciating]
(ACLINU084)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Understand that Indonesian language and culture, like all languages and cultures, are interrelated; they shape and are shaped by each other, in a given moment and over time
[Key concept: interdependence; Key processes: investigating, reflecting]
(ACLINU085)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use Indonesian to communicate with teachers, peers and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They pronounce the sounds ngg and ng, as well as sy (for example, masyarakat) and kh (for example, akhir), and use stress to create fluency in sentences. Students use and respond to open-ended questions such as Berapa lama? Dulu, apakah…, Kapan Anda…? Yang mana? Sudah pernah? and use strategies for initiating, sustaining and concluding oral and written exchanges. They locate, synthesise and evaluate specific details and gist from a range of texts. Students create a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts with some evidence of self-correction strategies. They include time markers such as Pada suatu hari, Keesokan harinya, Kemudian, and conjunctions such as namun, supaya, karena itu, to extend meanings such as in stories, comics, and written and oral reports. Students use yang to expand descriptions and ideas, and incorporate some object-focus construction to vary expression. They express opinions such as using Dari pihak saya, make comparisons such as using dibandingkan dengan, and incorporate emotions and...

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By the end of Year 10, students use Indonesian to communicate with teachers, peers and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They pronounce the sounds ngg and ng, as well as sy (for example, masyarakat) and kh (for example, akhir), and use stress to create fluency in sentences. Students use and respond to open-ended questions such as Berapa lama? Dulu, apakah…, Kapan Anda…? Yang mana? Sudah pernah? and use strategies for initiating, sustaining and concluding oral and written exchanges. They locate, synthesise and evaluate specific details and gist from a range of texts. Students create a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts with some evidence of self-correction strategies. They include time markers such as Pada suatu hari, Keesokan harinya, Kemudian, and conjunctions such as namun, supaya, karena itu, to extend meanings such as in stories, comics, and written and oral reports. Students use yang to expand descriptions and ideas, and incorporate some object-focus construction to vary expression. They express opinions such as using Dari pihak saya, make comparisons such as using dibandingkan dengan, and incorporate emotions and humour. Students describe possibilities using terms such as kalau-kalau and andaikata, and express aspirations such as using Pada masa depan, mudah-mudahan, saya berharap. They translate texts and create bilingual texts, relying on textual features, patterns and grammatical knowledge, and comment on how meaning can vary across languages and cultures, such as the use of idioms and culture-specific terms. Students state reactions to intercultural experiences, and discuss their assumptions, interpretations, and any adjustments to their language use.

Students know that spoken and written Indonesian vary, identifying informal usage such as nggak and aja, exclamations such as kok and dong, and the dropping of prefixes, for example, Dia (mem) beli mobil baru. They show awareness of contractions (for example, ortu, angkot), acronyms such as SMU and hp, and abbreviations such as texting language (for example, jln, skolah and mkn). Students use metalanguage to discuss possessive and noun–adjective word order, and use knowledge of the base word and affixation system to predict meaning and decode new words using dictionaries. They know that language is used to create particular effects and influence others, such as through the use of imperatives and rhetorical devices. Students know that Indonesian is a national language that, for the majority of Indonesians, may be one of a number of known languages. They explain aspects of Indonesian language and culture, including concepts of diversity and nasib, and the importance of language, religion and ethnicity as identity markers. Students make connections between language use and cultural practices, values and assumptions, both in Indonesian and in their own language use.

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