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  • Years F–10 Sequence
  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of French and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience...

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The nature of the learners

Students are beginning their study of French and typically have had little prior exposure to the language and associated cultures. Many will have learnt an additional language in primary school, some have proficiency in different home languages and bring existing language learning strategies and intercultural awareness to the new experience of learning French. Students’ textual knowledge developed through English literacy learning supports the development of literacy in French. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive. Students may need encouragement to take risks in learning a new language at this stage of social development and to consider issues of how the experience impacts on the sense of ‘norms’ associated with their first language and culture.

French language learning and use

Learners are encouraged to listen to, speak, read and write French in a range of interactions with the teacher and each other. They use the language for interactions and transactions, for practising language forms, for developing cultural knowledge and for intercultural exchange. There is code mixing and code switching, as learners use all available resources to make meaning and express themselves. They use English when they need to, with teachers modelling back the French that would have served the required purpose. Rich and varied language input characterises this first level of learning, supported by the use of gestures, vocal and facial expression, and concrete materials. Learners experiment with sounds, intonation patterns and body language, using high-frequency words and expressions, gradually broadening their range of language functions. They notice how French is used differently in different contexts and how French speakers communicate in ways that may be different to their own. As they adjust language use to suit different purposes, contexts and situations, they notice how culture shapes language. Learners work collaboratively and independently. They pool language knowledge and resources, plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives. They focus on the different systems (grammar, vocabulary, sounds) that structure language use, and reflect on their experience as French language learners and users. They gradually build a vocabulary and grammatical base that allows them to compose and present different kinds of simple texts.

Contexts of interaction

The French classroom is the primary context for language and culture experience, with ICT resources and community links providing access to additional resources and experiences. Learners may communicate with peers in France or other francophone contexts using teacher-guided ICT resources such as wikis, emails or online chat. They may also access French-language events or resources in the wider community, such as interschool activities, film festivals or cultural performances.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They also use materials designed for French students in different contexts (for example, blogs, newsletters, advertisements, magazines, video clips and apps). Authentic texts from different sources provide opportunities for discussion and analysis of the relationship between communication and culture.

Features of French language use

Students become familiar with the sounds of French, including pronunciation, rhythm, pitch and stress. They recognise similarities with many English words, noting differences in pronunciation (attention, menu). They approximate the pronunciation and phrasing of single words and short phrases, including vowel sounds such as -eau, -on, -ère and u, and unfamiliar consonants such as r and soft g. They understand and apply elements of French grammar such as subject-verb-object word order, simple verb forms, gender and number agreement of nouns and adjectives, pronouns and prepositions. Students understand that language is organised as text, and that texts use different structures and language features to achieve different purposes. They create their own texts, mainly using the present tense of regular and common irregular verbs, enriched by the use of adjectives and adverbs. They understand that language use reflects and shapes values and attitudes, and explore how language choices determine how people, events or circumstances are represented.

Level of support

Learning at this level is supported by rich and varied language input and the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable. Support includes scaffolding, modelling and monitoring; explicit instruction and feedback; structured opportunities for understanding and practising new language; and the chance to revisit, recycle and review. Learners need access to a range of engaging and accessible support resources and materials, including print and digital texts, audio recordings, word banks, graphic organisers and dictionaries.

The role of English

Learners are supported to use French as much as possible for classroom routines and interactions, structured learning tasks, and language experimentation and practice. English is used for discussion, clarification, explanation, analysis and reflection. Learners develop a metalanguage for thinking and talking about language, culture and identity, and about the experience of learning and using French.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with peers and teacher to exchange information and opinions, talk about self, family, friends and interests, and express feelings, likes and dislikes
[Key concepts: family, friendship, home; Key processes: interacting, describing]
(ACLFRC091)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Participate in collaborative activities such as performances and presentations that involve planning, making arrangements, transacting and negotiating
[Key concepts: tasks, performance, transaction, collaborative learning; Key processes: planning and managing tasks, acting]
(ACLFRC092)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom routines and interactions by following instructions, asking and answering questions, and requesting help or permission
[Key concepts: roles, routines, interaction patterns; Key processes: participating, interacting, contributing, responding]
(ACLFRC093)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate factual information from a range of texts and resources and use the information in new ways
[Key concepts: concepts from learning areas such as health or environmental studies; Key processes: researching, reading/listening, ordering, classifying]
(ACLFRC094)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present information and ideas relating to social worlds and natural environments in spoken, written and digital forms
[Key concepts: community, traditions, environment; Key processes: composing, presenting, informing]
(ACLFRC095)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Engage with imaginative and creative texts such as stories, poems, songs or cartoons, comparing favourite elements, and discussing characters, events, themes and effects
[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, character, expression; Key processes: participating, responding, evaluating]
(ACLFRC096)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Reinterpret or create own shared texts, experimenting with expressive and performance genres, and creating moods and effects suitable for different audiences
[Key concepts: adaptation, mode, genre, performance; Key processes: interpreting, creating, experimenting, presenting]
(ACLFRC097)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Translate short texts from French to English and vice versa, noticing which words or phrases translate easily and which do not
[Key concepts: translation, equivalence; Key processes: comparing, translating, interpreting, explaining]
(ACLFRC098)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts and resources such as learning support materials, games or posters, deciding how to deal with elements that cannot be readily translated
[Key concepts: equivalence, context, meaning; Key processes: translating, interpreting, explaining]
(ACLFRC099)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Engage with French speakers and resources, noticing how interaction involves culture as well as language
[Key concepts: awareness, interpretation, cultural frames, intercultural exchange; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, responding]
(ACLFRC100)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Notice own and others’ ways of expressing identity, and consider the relationship between language, culture and identity
[Key concepts: communication, identity; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, comparing, adjusting]
(ACLFRC101)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise and use features of the French sound system, including pitch, rhythm, stress and intonation
[Key concepts: pronunciation, intonation; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, imitating, reading aloud]
(ACLFRU102)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and use elements of the French grammatical system, including word order, gender and number variation, and present and compound forms of regular and some irregular verbs
[Key concepts: grammar, gender, number; Key processes: noticing, applying, explaining]
(ACLFRU103)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise and use features of common spoken, written and multimodal texts, and compare with features of similar texts in English
[Key concepts: genre, mode, tenor, audience, language features; Key processes: noticing, analysing, comparing]
(ACLFRU104)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that French language use varies according to context, situation and relationship
[Key concepts: variation, context, relationship; Key processes: noticing, analysing, explaining]
(ACLFRU105)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Understand the dynamic nature of French and other languages
[Key concepts: language contact, word borrowing, globalisation; Key processes: observing, identifying, classifying]
(ACLFRU106)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Recognise that French is both a local and a global language
[Key concepts: first language, global language, dialects, creoles, accents; Key processes: mapping, comparing, distinguishing]
(ACLFRU107)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Explore the relationship between language and culture
[Key concepts: culture, language, meaning; Key processes: analysing, explaining, defining]
(ACLFRU108)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use French to interact with each other, teachers and online French-speaking contacts, to exchange information, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings about themselves, their families and friends. They initiate and sustain conversation by using active-listening skills and responding to others’ contributions (for example, c’est vrai ...; ah oui, en effet ...; pas possible!). They respond to familiar questions and directions (such as Qu’est-ce que c’est? Qui est-ce? Posez la question à ...), and request help or clarification (for example, Pardon? Pourquoi? Peux-tu répéter?). They approximate French sound patterns, intonation and rhythms, including novel elements of pronunciation such as -r, -u and -ille. They use the present tense and present + infinitive form to make statements and ask questions about self, peers, family and interests (for example, je suis italien-australien; j’habite à Cairns; j’ai une sœur et deux frères; j’aime chanter; et toi?). They locate factual information from a range of texts and use non-verbal, visual and contextual cues to help make...

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By the end of Year 8, students use French to interact with each other, teachers and online French-speaking contacts, to exchange information, opinions, experiences, thoughts and feelings about themselves, their families and friends. They initiate and sustain conversation by using active-listening skills and responding to others’ contributions (for example, c’est vrai ...; ah oui, en effet ...; pas possible!). They respond to familiar questions and directions (such as Qu’est-ce que c’est? Qui est-ce? Posez la question à ...), and request help or clarification (for example, Pardon? Pourquoi? Peux-tu répéter?). They approximate French sound patterns, intonation and rhythms, including novel elements of pronunciation such as -r, -u and -ille. They use the present tense and present + infinitive form to make statements and ask questions about self, peers, family and interests (for example, je suis italien-australien; j’habite à Cairns; j’ai une sœur et deux frères; j’aime chanter; et toi?). They locate factual information from a range of texts and use non-verbal, visual and contextual cues to help make meaning. They describe familiar objects, contexts and experiences (such as la maison, le quartier, l’école), using appropriate subject-verb and noun-adjective gender and number agreements and vocabulary to describe appearance (for example, grand, petit, belle, bizarre), character (for example, sympa, compliqué) and quantity (for example, les numéros, beaucoup de ...). They use modelled sentence structures, formulaic expressions and high-frequency vocabulary to create texts such as captions, emails, posters or short narratives and presentations. They use conjunctions and connectives (such as puis, ensuite and mais), and prepositions of place and time (such as sous, sur, devant, après and avant) to build cohesion and extend sentence structure. They translate short texts and explain French gestures, expressions or signs to friends and family. They provide examples of how languages do not always translate directly, and how interpreting and translating involve meaning (for example, values, ideas, attitudes) as well as parts of speech (such as nouns, verbs, adverbs). They adjust language use to suit contexts and situations (for example, use of tu or vous, different forms of address), and respond in culturally appropriate ways to interactions with French speakers or resources.

Students provide examples of the dynamic nature of contact between languages and cultures in the contemporary world. They identify the significance of French as a world language and the distribution of communities of French speakers in different countries and regions. They give examples of similarities between French and English (for example, the same alphabet and basic sentence structure, many words in common), and some differences (such as pronunciation and intonation patterns, non-verbal language, grammatical gender forms and politeness protocols). They identify French words used in English (such as ‘menu’, ‘mousse’), English words used in French (such as le weekend, le football), and explain how languages and cultures influence and interact with each other (technology, globalisation, popular culture). They know that French has its own rules for pronunciation, grammar and non-verbal communication and that they need to adjust language to suit different situations and relationships (for example, formal and informal language, different text types). They use metalanguage to explain features of language, texts and grammar, making connections with terms such as ‘verb’, ‘adjective’ and ‘tense’ that are used in English learning, and incorporating new concepts such as grammatical gender for talking about French. Students give examples of how languages are connected with cultures, and of how French language reflects ways of behaving and thinking as does their own language.

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning French and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including...

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The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning French and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how French may feature in these.

French language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration and vocabulary expansion, and of experimentation with different modes of communication such as digital and hypermedia, collaborative performance and group discussions. Increasing control of language structures and systems builds confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Learners use French to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, to participate in imaginative and creative experiences, and to design, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They use French more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence forms of communication.

Contexts of interaction

The language class remains the principal context for learning and using French. Learners use written and spoken French to interact with peers, teachers and some other French speakers in local contexts and online environments. These exchanges are complemented by interactions with rich and varied language resources and materials. Learners may communicate with young French speakers and access additional resources and materials through ICT and teacher-facilitated connections. They may also participate in local community events such as Alliance Française activities, music or film festivals, or exchange-student hosting.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and support materials, such as textbooks, videos, apps, media texts and online materials. They also draw increasingly on texts produced for French-speaking communities, in a range of different times and contexts, such as short stories, songs, poems, newspaper reports, films, video clips, blogs and social media texts.

Features of French language use

Learners recognise and approximate the pronunciation, rhythms and intonation patterns of more extended phrases and compound sentences. They use words with more complex syllable combinations and become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain more control of grammatical and textual elements. They use the passé composé tense of verbs conjugated with avoir and être, recognise the form and function of reflexive verbs, and use elements such as possessive adjectives and object pronouns. They use expressive and descriptive language to talk about feelings and experiences. They develop understanding of the nature of both translation and interpretation, noticing the relationship between language, texts and culture. A balance is maintained between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that involve communicative tasks, performances and experiences. Task characteristics and conditions are more complex and challenging. They involve collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning. At this level, learners are developing understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity. They identify how meaning-making and representation in a different language involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on the learner’s ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural practices through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

This stage of learning revolves around consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. Resources are provided and processes modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies (such as online journalling, video documenting, and discussion forums). Continuing focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners’ development as text producers.

The role of English

French is increasingly used for classroom interactions and routines, for elements of task participation and for structured discussions. English continues to be used as the medium of some instruction, for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection. This allows learners to talk in more depth and detail about their experience of learning French and about their views on culture, identity and intercultural experience. English is the language of analysis, comparison and critique, encouraging discussion of concepts such as ‘diversity’, ‘flexibility’, ‘interculturality’ and ‘stereotypes’. It allows for discussion and debate appropriate to learners’ age and cognitive levels but beyond their linguistic capability in French.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Socialise and exchange views on local and global issues
[Key concepts: generation, environment, globalisation, relationships; Key processes: interacting, responding, explaining, comparing]
(ACLFRC109)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Participate in collaborative projects that make connections between French language and culture and other curriculum areas
[Key concepts: concepts from other learning areas; Key processes: task planning and resourcing, cross-referencing]
(ACLFRC110)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Develop classroom language to manage shared learning experiences, monitor performance and discuss French language and culture learning
[Key concepts: task, outcome, performance, communication, culture; Key processes: discussing, commenting, interacting]
(ACLFRC111)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Access and analyse information from different sources, identifying how culture and context influence the presentation of ideas
[Key concepts: information, representation, modality; Key processes: selecting, evaluating, interpreting, analysing]
(ACLFRC112)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Convey information on selected topics using different modes of presentation to suit different audiences
[Key concepts: content, audience, mode; Key processes: selecting, designing, presenting]
(ACLFRC113)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary texts, and compare themes and language style
[Key concepts: characterisation, themes, imagination, humour; Key processes: responding, comparing]
(ACLFRC114)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create imaginative texts to entertain, convey ideas and express emotions
[Key concepts: culture, expression, empathy, humour; Key processes: creating, performing, entertaining, reflecting]
(ACLFRC115)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Consider the nature of translating and interpreting and the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to another
[Key concepts: culture, translation, interpretation, meaning; Key processes: comparing, analysing, critical and cultural reading]
(ACLFRC116)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts such as glossaries, footnotes or captions to interpret cultural aspects of texts
[Key concepts: representation, bilingualism, interpretation; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, comparing]
(ACLFRC117)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Interact with French speakers and resources, recognising that intercultural communication involves shared responsibility for meaning making
[Key concepts: frames, standpoints, reciprocity, reflection; Key processes: expressing, discussing, noticing, adjusting]
(ACLFRC118)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Consider and discuss own and others’ cultural identities, and how they both shape and are shaped by ways of communicating and thinking
[Key concepts: identity, culture, communication; Key processes: observing, reflecting, explaining]
(ACLFRC119)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the regularities and irregularities of spoken French, and use pronunciation, rhythm and stress in increasingly complex ways
[Key concepts: liaisons, rhythm, intonation, pitch; Key processes: recognising, discriminating, imitating, producing]
(ACLFRU120)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Extend grammatical knowledge, including the forms and functions of reflexive verbs, verb moods and modality and the imperfect tense
[Key concepts: tense, mood, modality; Key processes: analysing, classifying, applying, explaining]
(ACLFRU121)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse and compose different types of texts using appropriate linguistic, textual and cultural elements
[Key concepts: register, tenor, cohesion; Key processes: analysing, composing, explaining]
(ACLFRU122)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Recognise that French is used in varying ways to achieve different purposes
[Key concepts: language modes, register, context; Key processes: noticing, comparing, analysing, explaining]
(ACLFRU123)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Examine the nature of language change in response to changing cultural conditions
[Key concepts: globalisation, intercultural contact, popular culture; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, comparing, explaining]
(ACLFRU124)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Understand the symbolic nature of language in local and global contexts
[Key concepts: power, symbolism, culture; Key processes: exploring issues, identifying, analysing, comparing]
(ACLFRU125)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Explore the dynamic nature of the relationship between language, culture and communication and how it impacts on attitudes and beliefs
[Key concepts: culture, meaning, change; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, comparing]
(ACLFRU126)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken French to socialise with peers, teachers and other French speakers in local contexts and online environments. They communicate about immediate and personal interests and involvements (such as family, friends, interests), and some broader social and cultural issues (such as health, social media, international experience, the environment). They approximate rhythms and intonation patterns of extended and compound sentences, using syllable combinations, and building fluency and accuracy in pronunciation, pitch and stress. They use the passé composé tense of regular verbs with avoir and être, noticing that the participe passé form of verbs with être involves gender and number agreement. They identify the form and function of reflexive verbs (such as se laver, se lever) and use appropriate forms of possessive adjectives in own language production. They locate, interpret and analyse information from different print, digital and community sources, and communicate information, ideas and views in a range of contexts using different modes of presentation. They use expressive and descriptive vocabulary...

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By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken French to socialise with peers, teachers and other French speakers in local contexts and online environments. They communicate about immediate and personal interests and involvements (such as family, friends, interests), and some broader social and cultural issues (such as health, social media, international experience, the environment). They approximate rhythms and intonation patterns of extended and compound sentences, using syllable combinations, and building fluency and accuracy in pronunciation, pitch and stress. They use the passé composé tense of regular verbs with avoir and être, noticing that the participe passé form of verbs with être involves gender and number agreement. They identify the form and function of reflexive verbs (such as se laver, se lever) and use appropriate forms of possessive adjectives in own language production. They locate, interpret and analyse information from different print, digital and community sources, and communicate information, ideas and views in a range of contexts using different modes of presentation. They use expressive and descriptive vocabulary to talk about feelings and experiences. They create imaginative and performative texts for a range of purposes, such as entertaining or persuading. They use French to narrate and describe, matching modes of presentation to context and intended audience. They create bilingual texts (such as guides, event commentaries, cultural glossaries), and interpret observed interactions in terms of cultural practices and comparisons.

Students identify differences between spoken and written forms of French, comparing these with English and other known languages. They identify the importance of non-verbal elements of communication, such as facial expressions, gestures and intonation. They make distinctions between familiar text types, such as greetings, instructions and menus, commenting on differences in language features and text structures. They use metalanguage for talking about language (such as formal and informal language, body language) and for reflecting on the experience of French language and culture learning. They identify relationships between parts of words (such as suffixes, prefixes) and stems of words (such as préparer, préparation; le marché, le supermarché, l’hypermarché). Students identify the validity of different perspectives, and make comparisons across languages and cultures, drawing from texts which relate to familiar routines and daily life (for example, la vie scolaire, la famille, les courses, les loisirs, la cuisine). They explain to others French terms and expressions that reflect cultural practices (such as bon appétit, bonne fête). They reflect on their own cultural identity in light of their experience of learning French, discussing how their ideas and ways of communicating are influenced by their membership of cultural groups.

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