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Chinese - Second Language Learner Pathway (Available for use; awaiting final endorsement)

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  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured...

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established oracy skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically, they have little to no experience of Chinese language and culture.

Chinese language learning and use

The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. The sights and sounds of Chinese are also quite distinct from English. Students therefore are immersed as much as possible in the sounds and spoken words of Chinese, the meaning of which is made clear through participation in active listening and action-related talk, gestures, dramatisation and games. Students are introduced to common characters associated with routines and their immediate experience, and draw on explicit models to communicate.

Contexts of interaction

Students socialise in structured situations and activities in the classroom and at school, with a focus on topics such as self, home, family, and daily routines. They begin to explore Chinese language and culture by participating in experiences such as celebrations; where relevant, they identify similarities and differences between Chinese culture and their own and other cultures.

Texts and resources

Students engage with a variety of texts and text modes, including picture and caption books, songs, cartoons and movies. They hear the different sounds of Chinese in stimulus material such as stories read aloud, multimedia resources and internet sites.

Features of Chinese language use

Learners are immersed in listening to, viewing and reading Chinese. They become aware of Chinese as an alternative code to English and that other languages exist within their own classroom, their country and overseas. They begin to recognise the importance of tone in Chinese speech and observe that the sounds of Chinese can be encoded in Pinyin using familiar letters. Students view characters through appropriate text types that may be glossed in Pinyin. They learn to recognise characters that represent familiar objects and ideas and convey significant cultural meanings.

Level of support

Visual displays, gesture, and specific and concrete contextual clues are continuously used to support understanding. Teachers model correct language use, which provides the main source of students’ development in Chinese. Learners will experiment with various software and technologies as communication tools.

The role of English

English is used by teachers and learners as appropriate for clarification, reflection, questioning and explanation, to support learners to comprehend and acquire Chinese.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Participate in class routines, structured conversations and activities using teacher-modelled tones and rhythms
[Key concepts: self, family; Key processes: participating, imitating, listening]
(ACLCHC001)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Interact with simple written texts in familiar contexts to contribute to class discussions
[Key concepts: self, family; Key processes: reading, planning]
(ACLCHC002)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Locate information about family and familiar events from spoken and visual sources and convey this information in simple visual and oral texts
[Key concepts: self, family, information; Key processes: describing, conveying]
(ACLCHC003)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Locate and present information about familiar objects, people and personal interests using visual and contextual cues
[Key concepts: self, family, home, routines; Key processes: obtaining, processing]
(ACLCHC004)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Creating

Respond to and create simple Chinese stories, songs and rhymes, reproducing rhythm and sound patterns to express feelings
[Key concept: imagination]
(ACLCHC005)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create short imaginative written texts using images and copied characters
[Key concepts: morality; Key processes: illustrating, copying]
(ACLCHC006)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Translating

Identify equivalent or similar Chinese words or phrases for familiar objects or terms in English
[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key processes: translating, connecting, interpreting]
(ACLCHC007)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Identify common Chinese characters and words in Pinyin using contextual cues
[Key concepts: self, family, home, routines; Key processes: interpreting, analysing, copying, tracing, shaping]
(ACLCHC008)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Notice aspects of Chinese language and culture that are ‘new’ or ‘interesting’, and observe how relationships influence language use and own identity
[Key concepts: self, family, home, routines; Key processes: observing, comparing]
(ACLCHC009)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Reproduce the four tones and recognise how they can change the meaning of words (ACLCHU010)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise Chinese characters as a form of writing and Pinyin as the spelled-out sounds of spoken Chinese (ACLCHU011)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand that Chinese sentences have a particular word order (ACLCHU012)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Engage with familiar text types to predict meaning (ACLCHU013)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Recognise that Chinese is a major community language in Australia (ACLCHU014)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Identify the features of formal language used in familiar contexts, such as at school (ACLCHU015)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
The role of language and culture

Describe how people use different languages to communicate and participate in cultural experiences (ACLCHU016)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students use spoken and written Chinese to communicate with teachers and peers. They participate in structured and routine interactions, such as using 谢谢, 再见, 请, using learnt sounds, formulaic phrases, and verbal and non-verbal responses. They respond to and receive information, for example, 你好, 你好吗? They follow simple instructions, including 排队, 请坐, 不要说话.. They use the four tones of Chinese but not always with accuracy. Students respond to short predictable imaginative and informative texts, expressing simple likes and dislikes (喜欢, 不喜欢). They can match characters to the meanings and sounds of familiar words, including numbers (八…), colours (红…) and family members (爸爸, 妈妈). Students use strategies such as imitation and basic contextual cues for comprehension. They create simple informative and imaginative texts by selecting and practising learnt characters and familiar words and phrases to describe, list, label and caption.

Students recognise that Chinese is a major language in Australia. They identify its distinctive systems of writing and speaking. They recognise the tonal nature of Chinese and know that characters are formed by strokes. Students differentiate between the Pinyin and characters associated with familiar objects in their immediate environment. They recognise the use of tone marks in Pinyin. They are aware of the word order of simple sentences. They recognise the conventions for using Chinese to communicate with family, friends and teachers. They recognise the similarities and differences between Chinese and Australian contexts, language and culture. They can identify themselves as learners of languages.

 

Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Chinese class. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning which builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Chinese language learning and use

The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese...

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The nature of the learners

At this level children are developing awareness of their social world and memberships of various groups, including of the Chinese class. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning which builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Chinese language learning and use

The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. Because of the role of character learning and its impact on reading and writing, learners can accomplish a higher active use of spoken language than written language. As a result, engagement with Chinese language is primarily through speaking and listening. Learners practise using Chinese through participating in action-related talk, and completing tasks while relying on teacher modelling, prompts and repetition. Students respond non-verbally to spoken Chinese in the classroom, and their understanding of Chinese is dependent on context, and on teacher intonation, gestures and facial expressions. They repeat speech and sounds from frequent and consistent teacher modelling and produce texts using familiar words or phrases.

Contexts of interaction

Likely contexts of interaction focus on everyday educational experiences and students’ personal, family and social environments. These familiar contexts are represented in the classroom in structured and scaffolded situations.

Texts and resources

Key text types and contexts include short predictable texts, photo biographies, correspondence, and structured and scaffolded situations. Students engage with a variety of Chinese language texts, including short audiovisual texts, plays, fables, rhymes, songs and dance, extending their use and comprehension of Chinese language and culture. Students also produce simple oral and written texts. They are exposed to a wide range of Chinese voices and settings through the use of multimedia texts, simulations and performances.

Features of Chinese language use

Students discover the distinctive features of the spoken language and begin to use Pinyin and tone marks to practise syllables and tones they encounter in new words. They recognise that letters in Pinyin and English produce different sounds using different spelling conventions. Printed texts used in the classroom are mainly presented in Pinyin but may be glossed with characters. Students use Pinyin to write, knowing that characters represent the real form of writing in Chinese. They use a variety of communication modes, including oral communication in English and Chinese as well as mime and gesture.

Level of support

Chinese language use is scaffolded and prompted by the teacher, and teacher modelling of correct language use is the main source of oral and written language acquisition.

The role of English

English is used where it supports comprehension of and participation in Chinese interactions, and when discussing issues of comparison and contrast between languages and cultures.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Interact with teachers and peers in social and class activities, exchanging ideas and opinions, using correct tones
[Key concepts: friendship, play, relationships; Key processes: participating, noticing, recognising, listening]
(ACLCHC017)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Exchange simple correspondence with teachers and peers to contribute suggestions and arrange activities
[Key concepts: family, friendship, exchange; Key processes: participating, noticing, recognising, responding, listening]
(ACLCHC018)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Obtain and process information about significant people, places and events from spoken and visual sources, and convey this information using learnt phrases and key words
[Key concepts: significance, self, family, neighbourhood, environment; Key processes: participating, noticing, recognising, responding, listening]
(ACLCHC019)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Locate factual information from sources and report this information to a known audience using learnt characters
[Key concepts: information, topic; Key processes: obtaining, processing, interpreting]
(ACLCHC020)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking
Creating

Respond to and create simple imaginative texts using voice, rhythm, and appropriate gesture and action
[Key concept: imagination; Key processes: feeling, participating, noticing, recognising, responding, listening]
(ACLCHC021)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create short written imaginative texts using simple characters and short sentences
[Key concepts: characters, events, plot; Key processes: participating, noticing, recognising, responding, listening]
(ACLCHC022)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate the meanings of important everyday words using contextual cues
[Key concepts: context, celebration; Key processes: participating, recognising, responding, listening]
(ACLCHC023)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Find English equivalents of common expressions in Chinese and vice versa
[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: translating, explaining]
(ACLCHC024)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on how aspects of personal identity are expressed in Australian and Chinese contexts
[Key concepts: self, belonging; Key process: reflecting]
(ACLCHC025)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the tone-syllable nature of spoken language, and compare Chinese and English sounds (ACLCHU026)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Reproduce key Chinese characters from familiar contexts using stroke types and sequences, and component forms and their arrangement (ACLCHU027)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Use nouns, adjectives and simple sentences to record observations (ACLCHU028)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Identify similarities and differences in the organisation of simple familiar texts (ACLCHU029)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Recognise that Chinese is spoken by communities in many countries (ACLCHU030)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Identify the likely contexts and features of informal and formal conversations involving known participants of different ages, genders and social positions (ACLCHU031)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
The role of language and culture

Identify how terms are used to indicate relationships and express aspects of culture that may be different from their owUPDATE [Element] SET [Description] = N (ACLCHU032)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students use spoken and written Chinese in simple personal interactions with familiar participants about self, family, people, places, routine, school life, and their own interests and preferences, for example, 你叫什么名字? 你上几年级? 你有狗吗? 你喜欢什么运动? They use appropriate pronunciation, tone, gesture and movement and some formulaic expressions. They use modelled questions to develop responses, for example, 你的哥哥几岁?, 他是谁?, 你住在哪里?, 这是什么? They respond to and create simple informative and imaginative texts for familiar audiences (for example, 狼与小孩) by selecting learnt words and characters. Sentences are short and follow the basic subject–verb–object structure with occasional use of adjective predicates, for example, 这是红色的苹果.. Learners use familiar words in Pinyin, or presented in characters in texts. Numbers are used in relation to age and family members, and to quantify objects with measure words such as 一个男生,两个姐姐,三只狗.

Students explain why Chinese is a globally important language. They understand that Pinyin provides access to the sounds of the spoken language. They identify features of the Chinese writing system, including the range of strokes and their...

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By the end of Year 4, students use spoken and written Chinese in simple personal interactions with familiar participants about self, family, people, places, routine, school life, and their own interests and preferences, for example, 你叫什么名字? 你上几年级? 你有狗吗? 你喜欢什么运动? They use appropriate pronunciation, tone, gesture and movement and some formulaic expressions. They use modelled questions to develop responses, for example, 你的哥哥几岁?, 他是谁?, 你住在哪里?, 这是什么? They respond to and create simple informative and imaginative texts for familiar audiences (for example, 狼与小孩) by selecting learnt words and characters. Sentences are short and follow the basic subject–verb–object structure with occasional use of adjective predicates, for example, 这是红色的苹果.. Learners use familiar words in Pinyin, or presented in characters in texts. Numbers are used in relation to age and family members, and to quantify objects with measure words such as 一个男生,两个姐姐,三只狗.

Students explain why Chinese is a globally important language. They understand that Pinyin provides access to the sounds of the spoken language. They identify features of the Chinese writing system, including the range of strokes and their sequences in character writing, and explain how component knowledge can assist in learning characters. They are aware that each character is a meaningful unit (morpheme) that is used to make up words. They recognise familiar word order in Chinese sentences. They notice similarities and differences between the patterns of the Chinese language and those of English and other familiar languages. They recognise that languages change with time and due to influences such as globalisation and technology. Students recognise that diversity of context and participants influence how meaning is communicated, and apply this knowledge to their own communication. They notice how cultural differences may affect understanding between people.

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Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communication repertoire in both their first language and Chinese. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context...

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The nature of the learners

At this level students are expanding their social networks, experiences and communication repertoire in both their first language and Chinese. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining awareness of the world around them. Learners are noticing similarities and differences between Chinese language and culture and their own.

Chinese language learning and use

The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. Because of the role of character learning and its impact on reading and writing, learners can accomplish a higher active use of spoken language than written language. As a result, engagement with Chinese language is primarily through speaking and listening. With teacher support, students begin to use Chinese to communicate their own ideas and participate in collaborative decision making. Learners engage in exploration of patterns and features of the language, talking about and making connections between known languages and cultures and comparing different ways of communicating in familiar contexts.

Contexts of interaction

Likely contexts for interaction are related to students’ personal, family and local environments, and their everyday educational experiences. They communicate with peers, teachers, known adults, and with other students in their class. The settings for interaction move to a more public context and include more participants. Students begin to move from socialising in the here and now to planning and organising future events.

Texts and resources

Text types include print and online news and media, blogs, advertisements, catalogues, popular music and drama. Texts presented in characters are generally glossed in Pinyin. Students write in characters to correspond with others in letters, and use Pinyin input systems to generate a variety of texts in digital format.

Features of Chinese language use

Engagement with oral language includes active listening; observing interactions between speakers in everyday contexts; and using the spoken language in songs, rhymes, stories read aloud, and games. Learners ask and answer questions, describe people and objects, and recount events. They speak with attention to the sounds and tones of words, using formulaic language and applying their knowledge of familiar language structures in new contexts. Students map character forms onto their familiar oral vocabulary, and recognise and name characters in context. They record and learn new vocabulary by using word lists in Pinyin, and use Pinyin to prepare drafts of spoken texts.

Level of support

Chinese language use continues to be scaffolded and prompted by the teacher. Teachers’ modelling of correct Chinese language use is the primary source of learners’ increasing Chinese oral and written language acquisition.

The role of English

The use of English is necessary for discussion, reflection and explanation, and for the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and intercultural capability.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate interactions with peers and known adults to plan and organise social activities
[Key concepts: community, leisure, nature, recreation; Key processes: planning, organising, transacting]
(ACLCHC033)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Exchange correspondence and create simple written material to plan future activities and events and contribute ideas
[Key concepts: friendship, community, recreation; Key processes: collaborating, exchanging]
(ACLCHC034)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Obtain and process specific information from multiple spoken sources, selecting and sequencing appropriate content for specific audiences
[Key concepts: public, private; Key processes: comparing, collaborating, recording, identifying, describing]
(ACLCHC035)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability

Locate key points in written informative texts, summarising the points to report to known audiences
[Key concept: information; Key processes: reading, viewing, summarising, analysing]
(ACLCHC036)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Creating

Engage with characters and points of view in short imaginative texts, express personal opinions and create simple spoken imaginative texts
[Key concepts: character, viewpoint; Key processes: connecting, expressing, responding]
(ACLCHC037)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create written imaginative texts, describing characters and sequencing events, using scaffolded models of texts, learnt characters or word lists for support
[Key concepts: character, narrative, sequence; Key processes: connecting, expressing, responding]
(ACLCHC038)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Interpret and translate simple texts used for everyday purposes, identifying actions, words and phrases that do not readily translate into English
[Key concept: equivalence; Key processes: interpreting, translating]
(ACLCHC039)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create own bilingual texts such as signs, displays and posters
[Key concepts: equivalence, idiom; Key processes: translating, identifying, discussing]
(ACLCHC040)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Describe aspects of own identity and reflect on differences between Chinese and English language and culture, identifying how this knowledge can help their intercultural exchanges
[Key concepts: similarity, difference, culture; Key processes: comparing, contrasting]
(ACLCHC041)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Discriminate between similar or related syllables and words by listening with attention to intonation, stress and phrasing (ACLCHU042)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Identify how character structure, position, and component sequences relate the form of a character to its particular sound and meaning (ACLCHU043)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Form sentences to express details such as the time, place and manner of an action and to sequence ideas (ACLCHU044)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Notice how the features of text organisation vary according to audience and purpose (ACLCHU045)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Understand that Chinese is characterised by diversity in spoken and written forms (ACLCHU046)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Examine how language is used to clarify roles and relationships between participants in interactions (ACLCHU047)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
The role of language and culture

Explore the ways in which everyday language use reflects culture-specific ideas, such as the influence of age, gender and social position on language choices (ACLCHU048)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Chinese to initiate and maintain interactions. They describe and give information about themselves and their preferences, their environment, experiences and interests, for example, 我很喜欢唱歌。我的学校很漂亮。我觉得澳大利亚是很好的国家. They use simple questions (for example, 请问… ? 你是哪国人?你会说汉语吗?) and seek clarification, for example, … 对吗? They access information from a range of print and digital resources (for example, 课文,菜单,宣传单,图样,地图,课程表, 日历,行程表, 天气预报) and summarise key points in order to inform others and organise activities, for example, 我们这个星期六去打球, 好吗? They engage with a range of imaginative texts. They use intonation and stress to engage audiences and participants. They translate everyday expressions (for example, 好久不见 or 不谢) and use context to assist with interpretation. They produce short informative and imaginative texts. Sentences include details of time (for example, 八点,十二月二日,星期五), place (for example, 在澳大利亚,在墨尔本,在家) and participants, for example, 我的朋友, 小明的哥哥. They use prepositions and possessive clauses, including . They use a range of verbs, including verbs of identification and existence (), and some modal verbs (喜欢 、 会) to express...

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By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Chinese to initiate and maintain interactions. They describe and give information about themselves and their preferences, their environment, experiences and interests, for example, 我很喜欢唱歌。我的学校很漂亮。我觉得澳大利亚是很好的国家. They use simple questions (for example, 请问… ? 你是哪国人?你会说汉语吗?) and seek clarification, for example, … 对吗? They access information from a range of print and digital resources (for example, 课文,菜单,宣传单,图样,地图,课程表, 日历,行程表, 天气预报) and summarise key points in order to inform others and organise activities, for example, 我们这个星期六去打球, 好吗? They engage with a range of imaginative texts. They use intonation and stress to engage audiences and participants. They translate everyday expressions (for example, 好久不见 or 不谢) and use context to assist with interpretation. They produce short informative and imaginative texts. Sentences include details of time (for example, 八点,十二月二日,星期五), place (for example, 在澳大利亚,在墨尔本,在家) and participants, for example, 我的朋友, 小明的哥哥. They use prepositions and possessive clauses, including . They use a range of verbs, including verbs of identification and existence (), and some modal verbs (喜欢 、 会) to express interest or ability; they negate with or . They use simple connectives such as and conjunctions to connect ideas.

Students explain the nature of tone-syllables, for example the role of tones in meaning making. They recognise the features of the Chinese writing system and apply their knowledge of the formation of characters in their own writing. They use Pinyin to transcribe spoken language. They identify how the relationships of participants and context affect interactions. They identify the features of familiar text types in Chinese and use these features to assist in interpreting meaning. They recognise that variations exist within the Chinese spoken and written language, and identify examples of this, particularly within their own community. They recognise and describe features of Chinese culture reflected in communication practices, and apply this knowledge to their own interactions with Chinese people.

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school and students in this pathway are continuing to study Chinese bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and China.

Chinese language learning and use

The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. Because of the role of character learning and...

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school and students in this pathway are continuing to study Chinese bringing with them a capability to communicate, with some assistance, about their immediate world and China.

Chinese language learning and use

The systems of writing and speaking in Chinese are distinct. Because of the role of character learning and its impact on reading and writing, learners can accomplish a higher active use of spoken language than written language. As a result, engagement with Chinese language is primarily through speaking and listening. Students use Chinese for self-expression, to access new information and to share their knowledge and experiences with others. Pinyin remains an important tool for learning the sound of new words, associating sounds with characters, and creating digital texts in characters.

Contexts of interaction

Students actively use Chinese in a range of everyday contexts for purposes such as socialising with peers, transacting and getting things done, sharing information and engaging in performance with a range of known participants, including native speakers and peers.

Texts and resources

Students explore a range of written texts, developing strategies to interpret meaning where not all characters are known. They read, respond to and create digital texts, including blogs, biographies and opinion pieces, using a variety of technologies and software.

Features of Chinese language use

Chinese is the language of instruction and interaction, and is used in more elaborate ways as students extend their knowledge of the grammatical system and its use through spoken and written communication. Students experiment with language, exploring how cultural meanings are expressed. They analyse how messages are conveyed across languages, and apply their skills in mediating between Chinese and English in different contexts and situations. Classroom discussions focus on exploring and extending their range of contexts and audiences as they develop their personal communication skills.

Level of support

Students are supported to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, to self-monitor, and to adjust language in response to their experience in diverse contexts.

The role of English

English is used as appropriate to allow for explanation and discussion on issues associated with analysis of language, reflection on experiences, and comparisons across languages and cultures.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate and sustain interactions with peers and familiar adults to plan and arrange activities or social events in the context of the school or local community, and vary spoken language in response to the needs and demands of other participants
[Key concepts: event, celebration, experience; Key processes: transacting, negotiating, suggesting, requesting, explaining]
(ACLCHC049)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Correspond with peers and other familiar participants to plan activities, and compare opinions on and attitudes towards different cultures
[Key concepts: relationship, experience, community; Key processes: sharing perspectives, exchanging, corresponding]
(ACLCHC050)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Informing

Analyse and summarise relevant information obtained from a range of spoken sources and convey this information to known audiences through a range of texts
[Key concepts: fact/fiction, representation, perspective, choice; Key processes: summarising, identifying, comparing, sequencing]
(ACLCHC051)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Locate, classify and organise relevant information, including analysing data in simple diagrams, tables and graphs, and re-present this information for known audiences
[Key concepts: lifestyle, change, trends, place; Key processes: summarising, comparing, contrasting]
(ACLCHC052)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Creating

Engage with imaginative texts, observing how characters, emotions and attitudes are portrayed, express opinions about these aspects of an imagined experience and apply this knowledge in their own performances and texts
[Key concept: emotion; Key processes: expressing, responding, performing]
(ACLCHC053)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create written imaginative texts to describe experiences involving imagined people and places
[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, emotion, love, hate; Key processes: expressing, responding]
(ACLCHC054)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate texts for different audiences varying the language to explain key points for these different audiences
[Key concepts: equivalence, meaning; Key processes: translating, experimenting, comparing]
(ACLCHC055)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create short bilingual texts on topics of personal interest and on key content from other learning areas and provide subtitles or commentary to assist meaning
[Key concepts: bilingualism, identity; Key processes: translating, interpreting]
(ACLCHC056)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Reflecting

Reflect on the cultural significance of how different groups and members of groups name themselves and are represented by others
[Key concepts: identity, group, name; Key processes: describing, considering, reflecting, developing]
(ACLCHC057)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Examine differences in sounds and tones, and patterns of sound flow in speech (ACLCHU058)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Interpret texts by inferring meaning from common character components or position of components, and analyse how reliable this method is in translating (ACLCHU059)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Identify and apply features of Chinese grammar and sentence structure to organise and sequence ideas in oral and written texts (ACLCHU060)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse how authors adjust features of different text types for different purposes and audiences (ACLCHU061)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Investigate the extent and dynamic nature of Chinese language use locally and globally (ACLCHU062)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Explain how the Chinese language adapts to social and technological changes (ACLCHU063)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
The role of language and culture

Compare and reflect on how cultural contexts influence the way language is used within and across communities (ACLCHU064)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Chinese to sustain interactions in a range of social and personal contexts. They exchange ideas and opinions, for example, 你要去看电影吗?;我们可以六月份一起去. They summarise the main points of information about known content from a range of spoken and print sources (for example, 电视节目,podcast, 电话留言广告老师推荐的网站书籍图书馆目录游记), and convey the relevant information in a range of texts. Students respond to and create simple imaginative and informative texts. Sentences generally contain two or more ideas connected by cohesive devices (for example, 不但…而且…; 因为… 所以…), as well as time expressions (for example, 先…再…), and tense markers such as 了、完 to sequence events and ideas. Students make comparisons (for example, 比; 跟…一样), and provide explanations or reasons for opinions or decisions, using phrases that order and link their ideas. They use reported speech to refer to the ideas of others, for example, 他们认为. They speak with attention to pronunciation, tone and phrasing, using intonation and pitch to add emotion or emphasis to their message. They demonstrate intercultural understanding by varying their language use for different audiences and purposes.

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By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Chinese to sustain interactions in a range of social and personal contexts. They exchange ideas and opinions, for example, 你要去看电影吗?;我们可以六月份一起去. They summarise the main points of information about known content from a range of spoken and print sources (for example, 电视节目,podcast, 电话留言广告老师推荐的网站书籍图书馆目录游记), and convey the relevant information in a range of texts. Students respond to and create simple imaginative and informative texts. Sentences generally contain two or more ideas connected by cohesive devices (for example, 不但…而且…; 因为… 所以…), as well as time expressions (for example, 先…再…), and tense markers such as 了、完 to sequence events and ideas. Students make comparisons (for example, 比; 跟…一样), and provide explanations or reasons for opinions or decisions, using phrases that order and link their ideas. They use reported speech to refer to the ideas of others, for example, 他们认为. They speak with attention to pronunciation, tone and phrasing, using intonation and pitch to add emotion or emphasis to their message. They demonstrate intercultural understanding by varying their language use for different audiences and purposes.

Students describe the distinctive spoken and written language systems of Chinese using metalanguage. They know that character components can contribute to both sound and meaning of words and they understand how they can be combined to make different words, for example, 中国, 城, 中国城. They identify features of text types such as letters, emails, descriptions and narratives. Students identify how information is structured in Chinese texts, and understand the importance of cultural and contextual cues to correct interpretation of meaning. They explain how features of Chinese culture impact on communication practices, and reflect on their own interactions with Chinese-speaking people.

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring prior knowledge of Chinese language and culture, and a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth, social and environmental issues. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how Indonesian could be part of these.

Chinese...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring prior knowledge of Chinese language and culture, and a range of language learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth, social and environmental issues. They are considering their future pathways and choices, including how Indonesian could be part of these.

Chinese language learning and use

Students use Chinese for self-expression, to obtain information and present a point of view to others, identifying subtle differences in word use and manipulating language for different purposes and audiences. Pinyin remains an important tool for learning the sound of new words, associating sounds with characters, and creating digital texts in characters.

Contexts of interaction

The likely contexts for interaction are extended to encompass the exchange of information and opinions on topics that will assist students to develop a deeper appreciation of cultural practices and traditions in diverse Chinese-speaking communities'. Learners interact with a broader range of Chinese speakers, using the spoken language to participate in discussions and other interactions.

Texts and resources

Text types include short informative texts from various websites, opinion pieces from personal blogs, and online chat forums conducted in Chinese with users in diverse locations. Students access information and explore texts written in Chinese, developing strategies to interpret meanings where not all characters are known.

Features of Chinese language use

Learners engage in cross-cultural communication and reflect on their own experiences in Chinese. Classmates work collaboratively to exchange information and ideas relating to contemporary issues or events and to share their life experiences. They use creative and expressive language in narratives to express their imagination.

Level of support

Learners are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users, to self-monitor, and to adjust language in response to their experience in increasingly diverse contexts. They access characters and vocabulary from a range of print and digital resources and online and print dictionaries.

The role of English

Chinese is the language of instruction and interaction. Some discussion and reflection are necessarily carried out in English, but learners at this level are beginning to express

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Exchange and elaborate on suggestions and opinions in spoken interactions related to planning and negotiating activities and events, adjusting spoken language for familiar and unfamiliar participants, purposes and contexts
[Key concepts: celebrity, leisure and recreation, built and natural environment; Key processes: planning, negotiating, deciding]
(ACLCHC065)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Sustain and extend written exchanges about places, future plans, and contemporary social issues and activities
[Key concepts: relationships, values, beliefs, attitudes, future, work; Key processes: analysing, evaluating]
(ACLCHC066)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Informing

Analyse, compare and present perspectives on topics of interest, identifying the different ways emotions, intentions and ideas are expressed
[Key concepts: celebrity, leisure and recreation, place, education, youth, space; Key processes: comparing, contrasting, negotiating, deciding, persuading]
(ACLCHC067)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Collate and present different perspectives on a range of issues from different sources
[Key concepts: ideograph, issues, career, future; Key processes: extracting, collating, identifying]
(ACLCHC068)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Creating

Engage with a range of performance-based imaginative texts, and respond by discussing attitudes portrayed, expressing opinions, explaining themes, discussing characters, and considering language use and cultural meanings, and apply this knowledge to create imaginative texts
[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, emotion, love, hate; Key processes: expressing, responding]
(ACLCHC069)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Create written imaginative texts that express aspects of Chinese culture for different audiences and identify how some concepts can be readily translated between Chinese and English and some do not
[Key concepts: values, tradition; Key processes: creating, expressing, reading, writing]
(ACLCHC070)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate a range of Chinese texts and identify how some concepts can be readily translated between Chinese and English and some do not
[Key concepts: semantics, syntax: Key processes: translating, interpreting]
(ACLCHC071)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts, identifying similarities between Chinese and English syntax and vocabulary, and explaining how these similarities can be used when transferring culture- or context-specific ideas from Chinese into English
[Key concepts: similarities, cultural positioning, sensitivity; Key processes: translating, captioning]
(ACLCHC072)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Reflecting

Compare the experiences of young Australians with those of young people in Chinese-speaking communities, reflecting on how these diverse experiences affect individuals’ identity, attitudes and beliefs
[Key concepts: behaviour, youth, lifestyle, social distance; Key processes: comparing, contrasting, reflecting]
(ACLCHC073)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Understanding
Systems of language

Explain differences in intonation, rhythm and sounds when listening to speakers of different ages, genders and social positions (ACLCHU074)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Relate prior knowledge of character form and function to infer information about the sound and meaning of unfamiliar characters (ACLCHU075)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse and examine how effective authors control sentence structure and use language to engage their audience (ACLCHU076)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary texts (ACLCHU077)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Explain the dynamic nature of the Chinese language and how changes over time are influenced by local and global contexts and cultures (ACLCHU078)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Explain how language defines people’s roles as outsiders or insiders in groups and cultures (ACLCHU079)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
The role of language and culture

Analyse the ways in which language choices reflect cultural practices and values and how language is used to express familiarity and distance between participants in interactions (ACLCHU080)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use spoken and written Chinese to sustain extended interactions with familiar and unfamiliar participants in a range of contexts (for example, interacting with Chinese-speaking students online; using Chinese to ask about items in a local Chinese grocery). Students use pinyin to transcribe spoken texts and use characters to create written texts. They identify key ideas and compare information from multiple sources (such as 新闻,访谈,podcast, 纪录片) to develop and substantiate their own position on topics of personal interest or issues of broader significance. They exchange ideas and opinions, for example, 为什么学中文很重要?; 澳大利亚的语言;好用的手机app, 我不太同意你的说法,因为…你觉得呢?; 虽然你说得有道理,但是… 所以我觉得… They speak with attention to pronunciation and tone. Students respond to and create a range of short informative and imaginative texts for a variety of audiences and purposes, for example, 什么是最健康的食物? 如果我…的话 . They use a range of sentence structures and grammatical features to develop cohesion and coherence in these texts, including prepositional phrases to describe participants (for example, 我和 / 跟妈妈去买东西), and adverbs to express time, tense and frequency of events, for example, 总是,还没有

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By the end of Year 10, students use spoken and written Chinese to sustain extended interactions with familiar and unfamiliar participants in a range of contexts (for example, interacting with Chinese-speaking students online; using Chinese to ask about items in a local Chinese grocery). Students use pinyin to transcribe spoken texts and use characters to create written texts. They identify key ideas and compare information from multiple sources (such as 新闻,访谈,podcast, 纪录片) to develop and substantiate their own position on topics of personal interest or issues of broader significance. They exchange ideas and opinions, for example, 为什么学中文很重要?; 澳大利亚的语言;好用的手机app, 我不太同意你的说法,因为…你觉得呢?; 虽然你说得有道理,但是… 所以我觉得… They speak with attention to pronunciation and tone. Students respond to and create a range of short informative and imaginative texts for a variety of audiences and purposes, for example, 什么是最健康的食物? 如果我…的话 . They use a range of sentence structures and grammatical features to develop cohesion and coherence in these texts, including prepositional phrases to describe participants (for example, 我和 / 跟妈妈去买东西), and adverbs to express time, tense and frequency of events, for example, 总是,还没有. They use conjunctions (for example, 虽然如此…,尽管这样…但是…) and apply a range of stylistic devices such as rhetorical questions, quotes and 成语. They translate texts and produce bilingual texts, recognising that not all concepts can be readily translated Chinese and English. They engage with a range of imaginative texts, for example, 娱乐节目-小品,合唱,音乐录影,流行歌曲比赛,电视片,电影.

Students recognise how writers and speakers, including themselves, make deliberate choices when using language features and text structures. They recognise that language is dynamic and is influenced by time, place, setting, participants and contexts. When interacting with a range of texts they identify how audience and purpose shape their own and others’ language choices and interpretation of these texts. They explain how features of Chinese culture and language shape their own and others’ communication practices. Students reflect on how their own cultural experience impacts on interactions with Chinese speakers.

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