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  • Years 7–10 (Year 7 Entry) Sequence
  • Years F–10 Sequence
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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with varying degrees of early literacy capability in Arabic and/or English. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people in settings outside the home, share with...

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The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with varying degrees of early literacy capability in Arabic and/or English. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people in settings outside the home, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school.

Arabic language learning and use

Arabic is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy. While the learning of Arabic differs from the learning of English, each supports and enriches the other. Arabic is used at home and in familiar Arabic-speaking settings, and in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of materials and resources, gestures and body language. At this stage, there is a focus on play, imaginative activities, games, music, dance and familiar routines, which provide scaffolding for language development. Repetition and consolidation help learners to identify familiar and new words and simple phrases, and to recognise the purpose of simple texts. Learners use Arabic for functions such as greeting (مرحبا؛ صباح الخير), sharing information ( هذه أختي لينا؛ عمري ست سنوات ), responding to instructions ( نعم؛ أنا هنا؛ حاضر ), and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks. The transition from spoken to written language is scaffolded via shared exploration of simple texts and language features. Learners use a variety of cues, including images, context and frequently used word patterns, to comprehend texts and communicate.

Contexts of interaction

The primary contexts for interaction in Arabic are the immediate environment of home and the classroom. Learners use Arabic to interact with each other and the teacher within the learning environment at school and with immediate family members at home. The use of information and communications technologies (ICT) enriches the learning of Arabic language and culture by providing alternative experiences, a range of resources, and opportunities to access authentic language in different contexts.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, written and visual texts, such as children’s songs and nursery rhymes, stories from Big Books and interactive resources. Writing skills progress from identifying the alphabet to tracing, labelling and copying letters, and then to constructing simple, short texts using familiar vocabulary.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners become familiar with how the sounds of the Arabic language are represented in letters and words. They practise pronunciation and intonation through activities such as reciting rhymes and poems and singing songs, and experiment with sounds, short and long vowels, phonemes, words, simple phrases and sentences relating to pictures, objects and actions, for example, طاولة صغيرة . They learn to recognise the letters of the Arabic alphabet, including new sounds, for example,خ؛ ع؛غ؛ ق؛ ص؛ ض؛ ط؛ ظ , and the way letters are joined to make words, for example, طار؛ طير؛ ذهب, and make comparisons with the English alphabet. They write letters, words and simple sentences using familiar vocabulary, prelearnt language features and structures, and formulaic expressions, for example, كان يا ما كان. They begin to recognise how language use changes according to the speakers and context.

Level of support

The classroom is a new context of communication where learners rely on the teacher to assist their learning. Learning experiences are supported by the teacher through scaffolding, modelling, cueing, monitoring, feedback and encouragement. Multiple and varied sources of input and stimulus are used, including visual cues, such as the use of gestures, and resources, for example, bilingual Big Books and picture books, subtitled cartoons and video programs, and realia, objects, maps and charts.

The role of English

Arabic is used as the medium for class interaction and to demonstrate and model new language acquisition. English may be used to explain features of language and aspects of culture. Both English and Arabic may be used when learners are communicating about similarities and differences between Arabic and other languages and cultures and reflecting on how they talk and behave in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking contexts.

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Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate interactions with peers and the teacher by asking and responding to questions and exchanging information about self and family, friends and school
[Key concepts: personal world, place, belonging; Key processes: introducing, exchanging, expressing preferences]
(ACLARC103)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Engage in guided group activities and transactions such as playing games, role-playing, singing and dancing, and communicate ideas, using movement, gestures and pictures to support meaning
[Key concepts: play, performance, action learning; Key processes: active listening, speaking, giving and following instructions]
(ACLARC104)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in classroom activities and routines, such as opening and closing of lessons, responding to instructions and taking turns
[Key concepts: roles, routines; Key processes: listening, speaking, cooperating, following instructions, taking turns]
(ACLARC105)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate and organise information from simple spoken, written and visual texts to identify details about people and objects
[Key concepts: meaning, context; Key processes: listening, reading, locating, categorising]
(ACLARC106)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Share information obtained from different sources, including online and digital sources, by listing, tabulating or sequencing information and using illustrations and gestures to support meaning
[Key concepts: self, family, school; Key processes: describing, showing, presenting]
(ACLARC107)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Listen to, view and read to simple imaginative texts, including digital and multimodal texts, and respond by making simple statements about favourite elements and through action, mime, dance, drawing and other forms of expression
[Key concepts: imagination, response, character; Key processes: participating, acting, listening, reading]
(ACLARC108)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create own representations of people or events in imaginative texts using familiar words, illustrations, actions and other verbal and non-verbal forms of expression
[Key concepts: performance, expression; Key processes: experimenting, drawing, captioning, labelling]
(ACLARC109)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate familiar Arabic and English words, phrases and expressions, using visual cues and word lists, and explain the meaning of particular words and verbal and non-verbal expressions
[Key concepts: meaning, expression; Key processes: noticing, matching, translating]
(ACLARC110)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create simple print or digital bilingual texts in Arabic and English, such as word lists, labels and captions, for their class, school and family
[Key concepts: representation, equivalence; Key processes: naming, labelling, displaying]
(ACLARC111)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Describe the experience of using Arabic at home and at school, such as how it feels and the particular behaviours they associate with speaking Arabic
[Key concepts: self, identity, belonging; Key processes: identifying, comparing]
(ACLARC112)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Identify themselves as members of different groups, including the Arabic class, the school, and their family and community, describing their roles within these different groups
[Key concepts: membership, roles, belonging; Key processes: recognising, describing, connecting]
(ACLARC113)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise the letters and sounds of the Arabic alphabet and identify how letters are modified so they can be joined to form words
[Key concepts: phonic awareness, script, directionality (writing right to left); Key processes: recognising, distinguishing, listening]
(ACLARU114)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise parts of speech and frequently used words in familiar contexts, and understand the basic rules of word order in simple sentences, such as the role of verbs in a sentence; the masculine and feminine forms of nouns, verbs and adjectives; and simple possessive forms
[Key concepts: word order, gender variation; Key processes: noticing, selecting]
(ACLARU115)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Recognise that language is organised as text, and that texts such as songs, stories and labels have different features
[Key concepts: textual features, form; Key processes: recognising, identifying]
(ACLARU116)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Recognise that there are variations in the language used by Arabic speakers in different situations, such as at home with family, and that the language used varies between different Arabic speakers
[Key concept: variation based on gender, age and context; Key processes: noticing, comparing, understanding]
(ACLARU117)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Recognise that Australia has speakers of many different languages, including Arabic, and that languages borrow words from one another
[Key concepts: place, word-borrowing; Key processes: noticing, selecting]
(ACLARU118)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Understand that the languages people use and the way they use them relate to who they are, where and how they live and what is important to them
[Key concepts: language, culture and identity; Key processes: noticing, understanding, making connections]
(ACLARU119)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information about themselves, their family and friends, for example, إسمي هاني؛ أنا ليلى؛ عمري ست سنوات؛ أمي سميرة؛ أبي خالد؛ عندي أخ وأخت؛ صديقي رامي؛ صديقتي رنا , and initiate interactions by asking and responding to questions. They use repetitive language when participating in shared activities and transactions and responding to classroom instructions. When speaking, they use the sounds of the Arabic language, for example, حروف مثل خ؛ ح؛ ط؛ ظ؛ ص؛ ض؛ ع؛ غ؛ ق . They locate information about people, places and objects in simple texts, and share information in different formats, using illustrations and gestures to support meaning, for example, ما اسمك أين تسكن؛ كيف حالك؟ هل عندك أصدقاء؟ كم أخت عندك؟ ماذا يعمل أبوك؟ ما اسم مدرستك؟ من هي معلمتك؟ هل تحب المدرسة؟ . They make simple statements about favourite elements in response to imaginative experiences, and create own representations of imagined characters and events, using illustrations, familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression. Students identify specific parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives, in spoken and written...

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By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information about themselves, their family and friends, for example, إسمي هاني؛ أنا ليلى؛ عمري ست سنوات؛ أمي سميرة؛ أبي خالد؛ عندي أخ وأخت؛ صديقي رامي؛ صديقتي رنا , and initiate interactions by asking and responding to questions. They use repetitive language when participating in shared activities and transactions and responding to classroom instructions. When speaking, they use the sounds of the Arabic language, for example, حروف مثل خ؛ ح؛ ط؛ ظ؛ ص؛ ض؛ ع؛ غ؛ ق . They locate information about people, places and objects in simple texts, and share information in different formats, using illustrations and gestures to support meaning, for example, ما اسمك أين تسكن؛ كيف حالك؟ هل عندك أصدقاء؟ كم أخت عندك؟ ماذا يعمل أبوك؟ ما اسم مدرستك؟ من هي معلمتك؟ هل تحب المدرسة؟ . They make simple statements about favourite elements in response to imaginative experiences, and create own representations of imagined characters and events, using illustrations, familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression. Students identify specific parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives, in spoken and written texts, and use familiar words and phrases, for example, المدرسة؛ العائلة؛ الأم؛ الأب؛ الأصدقاء؛الصف؛ المعلمة؛ البيت أسكن مع عائلتي؛ أحب؛ آكل؛ أذهب؛ ألعب؛ أغني؛ صغير/كبير؛ طويل/قصير؛ جميل؛ نظيف؛ المدرسة؛ بيتي؛ أختي؛ صديقي يوم السبت؛ في الصباح؛ الأمس؛ كل يوم and sentence patterns in simple texts, such as أحب أن آكل.../ لا أحب أن....؛ أذهب إلى؛ أذهب مع؛ . They recognise questions and commands, for example, ما أسمك؛ /اذا تحب أن تلعب؟ من صديقك في المدرسة؟ هل بيتك كبير؟ ما هي لعبتك المفضلة؟ أجلس هنا من فضلك؛ تكلم الآن؛ إرفع يدك؛ تعال إلى هنا , and use vocabulary and simple sentences to communicate information about themselves, their family and classroom, such as ذهب سمير إلى المدرسة؛ ذهبت لينا إلى البيت, applying basic rules of word order and gender. Students translate frequently used words and simple phrases using visual cues, and create word lists, labels and captions in both Arabic and English for their immediate environment, for example,البيت؛ الغرفة؛ الحديقة؛ المدرسة؛ الصف؛ المعلمة؛ الدرس؛ المدير؛ الشارع؛ الباص؛ الملعب؛ الدكان هذا أبي؛ .إسمه عادل؛ هذه معلمتي؛ إسمها آنسة هالة؛ أحب صديقتي كثيراً؛. They describe their roles as members of particular groups, and share their feelings and ways of behaving as they use Arabic at home and in the classroom, such as .أنا سعيد؛ أحب أن أتكلم مع أمي بالعربي لا أفهم العربي كثيرا؛ أنا في فريق كرة القدم؛

Students identify letters of the Arabic alphabet and join some letters to form simple words. They identify features of familiar texts. They distinguish between the language spoken by different Arabic speakers in different situations, such as at home with family or at school with the teacher, for example, من فضلك؛ هل يمكن أن...؛ هل أقدر أن...؛ لوسمحت.... Students name some of the many languages that are spoken in Australia, including Arabic, and provide examples of simple words in Arabic that have been borrowed from English and vice versa. They identify how the ways people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them.

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Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and their membership of various groups, including the Arabic class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in both Arabic and English, as well as biliteracy capabilities. They benefit from multimodal, activity-based learning that builds on their interests...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and their membership of various groups, including the Arabic class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in both Arabic and English, as well as biliteracy capabilities. They benefit from multimodal, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Arabic language learning and use

Learners interact with family and the wider Arabic-speaking community, and at school they interact with their peers and the teacher in a variety of communicative activities. Specific language learning skills such as memory and communication strategies are developed. Learners primarily engage in a variety of listening and viewing activities, and understand familiar stories, songs and poems. They use Arabic in everyday interactions, such as giving and following instructions أرسم خطاً على الورقة؛ أكتب العنوان فوق, attracting attention and seeking help عندي فكرة رائعة!؛ ممكن أن أتكلم؟. They participate in collaborative activities such as sharing information about their routines, friendships and leisure activities. They listen to, view and read a range of print, digital and spoken texts, such as interactive stories and performances, and use their imagination to create simple texts such as dialogues, stories and cartoons. They locate and classify key points of information in spoken, written and multimodal texts, and convey information about their family, home and neighbourhood in simple texts such as diary entries, emails and short stories.

Contexts of interaction

The contexts in which students interact in learning and using Arabic are primarily the classroom, school and home. They have access to the wider community of Arabic speakers and resources through out-of-classroom activities and the use of virtual and digital technology. They work both independently and cooperatively, further developing their sense of personal as well as group identity, and of the cultural significance of family relationships.

Texts and resources

Learners develop biliteracy skills through interacting with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Texts such as recipes, reports and family profiles show how language is used in different ways and for different purposes.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners explore Arabic sounds, intonation and writing conventions to further develop their speaking and writing skills and initial understanding of their developing biliteracy. They use key grammatical forms and structures, such as verbs, pronouns, singular/plural forms and prepositions, to provide information in simple sentences and short texts about places جاء وليد من مصر عندما كان عمره أربع سنوات, people, actions, events and feelings, for example, عندما أعزف الموسيقى أشعر بالفرح. They begin to develop a metalanguage for understanding and discussing language features, and make connections and comparisons between Arabic and English. Comparing the structures and patterns of Arabic with those of English helps learners understand both languages, assisting in the development of their biliteracy skills.

Level of support

In the classroom, this stage of learning involves extensive support through scaffolding. Teachers model what is expected, introduce language concepts and resources needed to manage and complete tasks, and make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting, providing support for self-monitoring and reflection. Support includes a range of spoken, written, visual and interactive resources, such as poems, songs, video clips and digital games.

The role of English

Learners use Arabic in classroom routines, social interactions, learning tasks, and language experimentation and practice. Arabic and English are used for discussion, explanation and reflection. Learners explore connections between culture and language use in various Arabic-speaking communities and the wider Australian context, and reflect on their own sense of identity and their experiences as Arabic background speakers when communicating and interacting with others.

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Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Socialise and build relationships with the teacher, family and friends through the exchange of personal information relating to home and school environment, such as everyday routines
[Key concepts: friendship, experiences, routine, time; Key processes: describing, expressing, sharing]
(ACLARC120)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in collaborative tasks and shared experiences that involve planning and simple transactional exchanges, such as playing games, role-playing dialogues, and preparing and presenting group work
[Key concepts: participation, cooperation, collaboration; Key processes: sharing, negotiating]
(ACLARC121)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Participate in everyday classroom activities, such as giving and following instructions, attracting the teacher’s attention and asking for repetition
[Key concepts: respect, politeness; Key processes: participating, requesting, responding]
(ACLARC122)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate and classify information relating to familiar contexts, routines and interests from spoken, written and visual texts
[Key concepts: time (routines), leisure; Key processes: listening, reading, viewing, selecting, sequencing]
(ACLARC123)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present information relating to home, school, neighbourhood and leisure in a range of spoken, written and digital modes
[Key concept: representation (private life); Key processes: organising, selecting, presenting]
(ACLARC124)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Respond to imaginative texts, such as interactive stories and performances, identifying and describing characters, events, ideas and favourite elements
[Key concepts: character, people, places, experiences; Key processes: participating, responding, relating, reflecting]
(ACLARC125)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Create and perform short imaginative texts, such as dialogues or collaborative stories based on Arabic fables, using formulaic expressions and modelled language
[Key concepts: imagination, experience; Key processes: presenting, creating, performing]
(ACLARC126)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate and interpret words, expressions and sentences in simple English and Arabic texts, noticing similarities and differences or non-equivalence
[Key concepts: meaning, translation; Key processes: moving between languages, comparing]
(ACLARC127)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Produce bilingual texts and resources, including digital and online resources such as digital picture dictionaries, posters and signs, for their class and school community
[Key concepts: similarity, difference; Key processes: selecting, describing]
(ACLARC128)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on their experiences as Arabic background speakers when interacting in English and Arabic, observing differences in language use and behaviours
[Key concepts: culture, language, behaviour; Key processes: examining, connecting]
(ACLARC129)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Explore their own sense of identity, including elements such as family, background and experiences, and ways of using language in Arabic- and English-speaking contexts
[Key concepts: communication, identity; Key processes: reflecting, adjusting]
(ACLARC130)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Recognise and reproduce Arabic pronunciation and intonation patterns using vocalisation and features of individual syllable blocks, and understand that in Arabic script, most letters change appearance depending on their position
[Key concepts: sound and writing systems, syllables; Key processes: noticing, describing, comparing]
(ACLARU131)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and use key grammatical forms and structures, such as basic pronouns and possessive pronouns, singular/plural forms of regular nouns and adjectives, and prepositions
[Key concepts: number, syntax, verb forms; Key processes: sequencing, applying, relating]
(ACLARU132)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Understand that familiar spoken and written Arabic texts, such as conversations and stories, have particular features and structures relating to different purposes and audiences
[Key concepts: linguistic features, genre, structure; Key processes: observing patterns, distinguishing]
(ACLARU133)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking
Language variation and change

Understand that Arabic as a spoken language varies according to region and country and that meaning can be influenced by gestures, tone and purpose
[Key concepts: dialect, variation; Key processes: observing, explaining]
(ACLARU134)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Recognise that languages change over time and influence one another
[Key concepts: language change, influence, exchange; Key processes: observing, identifying, discussing]
(ACLARU135)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
Role of language and culture

Compare and reflect on cultural practices relating to ways in which language is used in various Arabic-speaking communities and in the wider Australian context
[Key concepts: difference, expression, practices; Key processes: identifying, distinguishing, relating, comparing]
(ACLARU136)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers to share personal information about aspects of their lives, such as experiences, everyday routines and leisure activities, for example, عمري تسع سنوات؛ أنا مولود في أستراليا؛ أتيت إلى أستراليا وأنا صغير في الصباح أستيقظ باكراً؛ أنام في الساعة...؛ بعد المدرسة... في المساء... أذهب مع عائلتي إلى المتحف؛ البحر؛ الحديقة العامة؛ السوق؛ ألعب الرياضة بعد المدرسة؛ أحب كرة القدم؛ آخذ دروساً في الباليه. They use formulaic expressions when interacting, such as giving and following instructions, asking for repetition, planning shared activities and completing simple transactions, for example, من فضلك أريد المساعدة؛ أن أذهب إلى الحمام؟؛ هل أستطيع أن؛ من فضلك هل يمكن أن تعيد الكلمة؟ الجملة؟ ؛ . They use features of Arabic pronunciation and intonation when speaking and reading aloud. Students locate and classify information relating to familiar contexts and present it in modelled spoken, written and visual texts. They describe characters, events and ideas and express opinions about favourite elements in imaginative texts, and use formulaic expressions, for example, في يوم من الأيام؛ كان هناك , and modelled language...

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By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers to share personal information about aspects of their lives, such as experiences, everyday routines and leisure activities, for example, عمري تسع سنوات؛ أنا مولود في أستراليا؛ أتيت إلى أستراليا وأنا صغير في الصباح أستيقظ باكراً؛ أنام في الساعة...؛ بعد المدرسة... في المساء... أذهب مع عائلتي إلى المتحف؛ البحر؛ الحديقة العامة؛ السوق؛ ألعب الرياضة بعد المدرسة؛ أحب كرة القدم؛ آخذ دروساً في الباليه. They use formulaic expressions when interacting, such as giving and following instructions, asking for repetition, planning shared activities and completing simple transactions, for example, من فضلك أريد المساعدة؛ أن أذهب إلى الحمام؟؛ هل أستطيع أن؛ من فضلك هل يمكن أن تعيد الكلمة؟ الجملة؟ ؛ . They use features of Arabic pronunciation and intonation when speaking and reading aloud. Students locate and classify information relating to familiar contexts and present it in modelled spoken, written and visual texts. They describe characters, events and ideas and express opinions about favourite elements in imaginative texts, and use formulaic expressions, for example, في يوم من الأيام؛ كان هناك , and modelled language to create short imaginative texts. They use vocabulary related to school, home and everyday routines, for example, الدراسة؛ التعليم؛ فروضي؛ مواد المدرسة؛ غرفة النوم؛ غرفتي/ غرفة أخي؛ المطبخ؛ الطابق العلوي أستيقظ من النوم؛ أتناول الفطور؛ أستقل الباص؛ أكمل واجبات المدرسة؛ أشاهد التلفاز؛ أقرأ الكتاب. Students use key grammatical forms and structures in simple spοken and written texts, such as word order, singular and plural forms of regular nouns and adjectives, personal and possessive pronouns, for example, كتاب/كتب؛ غرفة/غرف؛ صف/ صفوف؛ صديق/أصدقاء,أنتَ/أنتِ؛ هو/هي/هم؛ كتابي/ كتبي؛ غرفتي/غرفة أخي؛ مدرستي؛ مدرستنا , and prepositions such as في البيت؛ إلى المدرسة؛ بين الملعب والسّاحة؛ أثناء الدرس؛ بعد العشاء؛ قبل النوم. Students translate familiar and frequently used language relating to familiar environments and create simple bilingual texts for the classroom and school community. They describe how language involves behaviours as well as words and share their own experience as background speakers as they interact with others.

Students identify and use Arabic sound and writing patterns, for example أ؛ ئـ؛ ء؛ ؤ؛ والياء؛الألف المقصورة ى , including combining letters to form words, vocalisation, and features of individual syllable blocks such as التنوين: إشترى أبي بيتاً؛رأيت كلباً؛ في بيتي غرفٌ . آكل؛ آمل؛ آسف؛ They identify the features and structure of different types of texts, for example, العنوان؛ الحبكة؛ النهاية القافية؛ فعل الأمر؛ الجمل؛ القصيرة أدوات الحوار؛ الأدوار في الحوار؛ . They identify similarities and differences between various Arabic dialects and explain how meaning can be influenced by gestures and tone. Students provide examples of how the Arabic language has changed over time and identify words and expressions in Arabic that have emerged from contact with other languages and vice versa. They compare language use and cultural practices in Arabic-speaking communities and in the wider Australian context, identifying culture-specific terms and expressions, particularly those related to special occasions, for example, كيفية الإحتفال في المناسبات؛ زيارة الأهل في الأعياد؛ الإحتفال بأعياد الميلاد

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Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, learners have established communication and literacy skills in Arabic that enable them to explore aspects of Arabic language and culture as well as topical issues drawn from other key learning areas. They are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both Arabic and English and developing...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, learners have established communication and literacy skills in Arabic that enable them to explore aspects of Arabic language and culture as well as topical issues drawn from other key learning areas. They are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both Arabic and English and developing some biliteracy capabilities. They participate in collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. They are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context, and increasingly aware of the world around them.

Arabic language learning and use

Purposeful language use in authentic contexts and shared activities in the classroom develop language skills and enhance communication and understanding. Learning how Arabic is structured reinforces learners’ oracy and literacy. Learners develop their speaking skills by interacting with teachers, peers, family and local Arabic speakers to share their own and enquire about others’ experiences أقرأ قصة قبل النوم؛ وأنتِ هل تقرأين قبل النوم؟, social activities and opinions. They have access to a broader range of vocabulary, and use a growing range of strategies such as effective listening skills to support communication. They write more accurately and fluently for a range of purposes, contexts and audiences. They listen to, view and read Arabic folk tales, fables and films to engage with themes, characters and events, exploring embedded cultural beliefs, values and practices, and use their imagination to create and perform songs, poems, short plays and video clips. They obtain information from a range of sources about social, cultural and communicative aspects of lifestyles in Arabic-speaking communities, and present the information in different formats for particular audiences. Individual and group presentation and performance skills are developed through modelling, rehearsing and resourcing the content of presentations.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Arabic in the classroom and in their extended social space, such as family, neighbourhood and the community, for a growing range of purposes, for example, exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, and responding to experiences. They are able to work more independently, but also enjoy working collaboratively in pairs and in groups. They explore cultural aspects of communication, and use information and communications technologies (ICT) to support and enhance their learning.

Texts and resources

Learners interact with an increasing range of informative, persuasive and imaginative texts about neighbourhoods, places, and Arabic-speaking communities and individuals. They refer to and use more established grammatical and lexical resources to understand and communicate in Arabic. The use of dictionaries is encouraged for accuracy and expansion of language acquisition.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners’ pronunciation, intonation and phrasing are more confident, and they apply appropriate writing conventions, including spelling and punctuation, in a range of print, digital and multimodal texts. They use grammatical structures, such as verb conjugation, suffixes, linguistic elements such as conjunctions and a range of adjectives and adverbs to describe actions and events according to time and place هو كتبَ؛ هي ركضت , share information about life at home and school أمي تطبخ طعاماً لذيذاً؛ أبي يغسل السيارة كل أسبوع, elaborate on ideas and information and express opinions relating to their personal and social worlds. They understand how language use varies when interacting with different people and for different purposes. They explore cross-linguistic and intercultural influences of other languages on Arabic, such as Aramaic, Syriac and Assyrian, and regional languages such as Persian, Kurdish and Turkish.

Level of support

While learners work both independently and collaboratively at this level, ongoing support and feedback are incorporated into task activities such as the production of written texts. Support includes the provision of models, scaffolds, stimulus materials, and resources such as word charts, vocabulary lists and dictionaries.

The role of English

Classroom interactions are increasingly bilingual. Arabic is used primarily for communication, while English and Arabic are used for discussion of linguistic features and cultural practices, and for reflective tasks and explanations. Learners are given opportunities to think about personal and community identity. They explore the relationship between language and culture, and ask questions about cultural values and practices and how these relate to their own sense of identity as Arabic background speakers when interacting in different Arabic- and English-speaking contexts.

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Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Socialise and maintain relationships with peers and the teacher by sharing information about their personal experiences and social activities
[Key concepts: relationships, experiences; Key processes: describing, listening, comparing, explaining]
(ACLARC137)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Collaborate in group tasks and organise shared experiences that involve making suggestions and decisions and engaging in transactions
[Key concepts: organisation, transaction; Key processes: negotiating, explaining, advising, making choices]
(ACLARC138)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Interact in classroom activities, such as creating and following shared rules and procedures, expressing opinions, and asking for and providing clarification
[Key concepts: attitude, values, roles, responsibility; Key processes: expressing, sharing, requesting, clarifying, planning]
(ACLARC139)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Listen to, view and read a range of texts to locate, classify and organise information relating to social and cultural worlds
[Key concepts: time, place, media, culture; Key processes: listening, viewing, reading, selecting, organising]
(ACLARC140)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Convey ideas and information on topics of interest and aspects of culture in different formats for particular audiences
[Key concepts: audience, context, lifestyle; Key processes: using, transposing, summarising]
(ACLARC141)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Share responses to a range of imaginative texts, including multimodal and digital texts, such as cartoons, folk tales, fables and films, by expressing opinions on key ideas, characters and actions, and making connections with own experiences and feelings
[Key concepts: connection, feelings; Key processes: interpreting, expressing, explaining, comparing]
(ACLARC142)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create and perform imaginative texts in print, digital or online formats, such as songs, stories, video clips or short plays, based on a stimulus, concept or theme
[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, expression; Key processes: composing, performing, imagining]
(ACLARC143)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa for peers, family and community, and identify words and expressions that may not readily correspond across the two languages
[Key concepts: correspondence, interpretation, audience; Key processes: translating, comparing, explaining]
(ACLARC144)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Produce bilingual texts and resources such as displays, instructions and newsletters for own learning and for the school community, identifying cultural terms in either language to assist meaning
[Key concepts: bilingualism, linguistic landscape; Key processes: translating, modifying]
(ACLARC145)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on their experiences of interacting in Arabic- and English-speaking contexts, discussing adjustments made when moving between languages
[Key concepts: biculturality, meaning, context, belonging; Key processes: comparing, explaining]
(ACLARC146)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Reflect on how own biography, including family origins, traditions and beliefs, impacts on identity and communication
[Key concepts: self, complexity, belief systems; Key processes: finding connections, reflecting, discussing]
(ACLARC147)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand patterns of intonation and pronunciation, including the way vowels soften and extend sounds, and apply appropriate conventions to their writing
[Key concepts: sound systems, application, writing systems; Key processes: analysing, applying]
(ACLARU148)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Develop and apply understanding of verb conjugation, suffixes, basic conjunctions and a range of adjectives and adverbs to construct simple sentences
[Key concepts: grammar, syntax, vocabulary knowledge; Key processes: applying, explaining, understanding]
(ACLARU149)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking

Explore the structure and language features of spoken and written Arabic texts, such as news reports and conversations, recognising that language choices and the form of Arabic used depend on purpose, context and audience
[Key concepts: structure, coherence, textual features; Key processes: connecting, applying]
(ACLARU150)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Language variation and change

Explore how language use differs between spoken and written Arabic texts, and depends on the relationship between participants and on the context of the situation
[Key concepts: language, variation, context, relationship; Key processes: observing, explaining]
(ACLARU151)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Explore the origins of Arabic and how it has been influenced by and influences other languages
[Key concepts: language, change, borrowing; Key processes: reflecting, selecting, connecting]
(ACLARU152)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia
Role of language and culture

Explore how language use reflects particular value systems, attitudes and patterns of behaviour by comparing ways of communicating across cultures
[Key concepts: values, attitudes, behaviour; Key processes: exploring, describing, comparing]
(ACLARU153)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Arabic to exchange personal information and describe people, places and ideas related to their personal experiences and social activities such as celebrations for example, أذهب مع عائلتي لزيارة جدي وجدتي في الأعياد؛ في العطلة الأسبوعية, sport (for example, أألعب رياضتي المفضلة مع أصدقائي بعد المدرسة في الحديقة العامة and other interests such as أشاهد أفلام الكارتون مع عائلتي في السينما؛ ألعب ألعاب إلكترونية. They make shared decisions, for example, أريد أن... , provide suggestions such as يمكن أن... , and complete transactions. When participating in classroom routines and activities, they follow shared rules and procedures, express opinions and ask for clarification, for example, حسنا؛ نعم ولكن؛ أعتقد أن...؛ ما معنى ... . Students use patterns of Arabic pronunciation and intonation when interacting. They locate, classify and organise information from a range of spoken, written and visual texts related to aspects of culture and lifestyle. They present ideas and information on topics of interest and aspects of culture in different formats for particular audiences. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by expressing...

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By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Arabic to exchange personal information and describe people, places and ideas related to their personal experiences and social activities such as celebrations for example, أذهب مع عائلتي لزيارة جدي وجدتي في الأعياد؛ في العطلة الأسبوعية, sport (for example, أألعب رياضتي المفضلة مع أصدقائي بعد المدرسة في الحديقة العامة and other interests such as أشاهد أفلام الكارتون مع عائلتي في السينما؛ ألعب ألعاب إلكترونية. They make shared decisions, for example, أريد أن... , provide suggestions such as يمكن أن... , and complete transactions. When participating in classroom routines and activities, they follow shared rules and procedures, express opinions and ask for clarification, for example, حسنا؛ نعم ولكن؛ أعتقد أن...؛ ما معنى ... . Students use patterns of Arabic pronunciation and intonation when interacting. They locate, classify and organise information from a range of spoken, written and visual texts related to aspects of culture and lifestyle. They present ideas and information on topics of interest and aspects of culture in different formats for particular audiences. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by expressing opinions on key elements for example, من القصة نتعلم ال..., characters for example, أحب علاء الدين لأنه...؛ لا أحب الملك في الفيلم لأنه and actions for example, يجب على نيمو أن يسمع كلام أبيه, and making connections with own experience, for example أنا أيضا يجب أن...؛ أنا مثل... . They create and perform short imaginative texts based on a stimulus, concept or theme. They use a variety of tenses for example, الأفعال الماضية والمضارعة and apply verb conjugation for example,أكلتُ/أكلَ/أكلت, suffixes for example, أذهب/ يذهب/تذهب, basic conjunctions for example,و؛ أو and a range of adjectives for example, الصفة للمذكر والصفة للمؤنث للأشياء والأشخاص and adverbs for example, سريعاً؛ ليلاً؛ صباحاً؛ يوميًّا to construct sentences and to produce short texts. Students translate texts from Arabic into English and vice versa, identifying words that are not easily translated, such as أيفون؛ تلفاز؛ كومبيوتر , and create bilingual texts for their own learning and for the school community. They identify ways in which their own biography for example, السيرة الذاتية؛ الخبرات الخاصة, traditions for example, العادات العائلية والإجتماعية and beliefs for example, المعتقدات الخاصة impact on their identity and influence the ways in which they communicate in Arabic and English.

Students identify the role of vowels in softening and extending sounds and apply writing conventions to own constructions. They distinguish between the structure and features of different types of spoken and written Arabic texts and identify ways in which audience, context and purpose influence language choices and the form of Arabic used. They provide examples of how language use and ways of communicating vary according to the relationship between participants and the purpose of the exchange, for example, أنواع الجمل: الإسمية والفعلية؛ الترداد في بعض العبارات؛ طول الجمل والفواصل الشفهية فيها. They identify how languages influence one another, including the influence of indigenous languages of the Arabic-speaking world and regional languages such as Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician, Persian, Kurdish and Turkish on Arabic, for example الأبجدية؛ المفردات المستعارة؛ أصل الكلمات. They give examples of how language use reflects particular value systems, attitudes and patterns of behaviour across cultures.

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Arabic, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate about their immediate world and that of Arabic-speaking countries and communities overseas.

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The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Arabic, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate about their immediate world and that of Arabic-speaking countries and communities overseas.

Arabic language learning and use

The focus of learning shifts from the world of learners’ own experience and imagination to the wider world. Learners make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences relating to teenage life and interests. They engage in a range of interactions with others, expressing their feelings أتمنى أن نسافر إلى كوينزلاند في عطلة المدرسة, exchanging and clarifying their views ما رأيك؛ سامي أعطنا رأيك, describing and explaining their actions and responses تأخرت في الصباح لأنني إستيقضت متأخراَ , and negotiating and making arrangements أن ساعدتني في البحث؛ سنحصل على درجة عالية. They increasingly access information from local sources and the internet to explore perspectives and views on topics of interest to teenagers, such as leisure, entertainment and special occasions. Learners use different processing strategies and their knowledge of language, increasingly drawing on their understanding of text types, when conveying information in a range of texts. They produce personal, informative and persuasive texts, such as blogs, diary entries, emails, reports, articles and speeches, about their own social and cultural experiences at home, at school, and in Arabic-speaking communities in the Australian context. They examine a range of imaginative texts, such as Arabic legends, to analyse and give their opinions on themes, characters, events, messages and ideas الفيلم غير واقعي, and discuss and compare how elements of Arabic culture are represented. They use their imagination to create and perform songs, short plays and stories to entertain different audiences. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and editing to improve structure and clarify expression and meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners work both collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use Arabic to interact with teachers, peers and local Arabic speakers, participating in authentic situations at home, at school and within the local community. The context of interactions extends beyond the home and classroom and involves participation in community events or celebrations. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.

Texts and resources

Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Arabic in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Arabic-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners use appropriate pronunciation, intonation, rhythm patterns and writing conventions to convey specific meaning in a range of texts. By building their vocabulary knowledge, learners are able to develop and express more complex concepts in Arabic. They use a range of grammatical forms and structures to convey relationships between people, places, events and ideas. They employ a variety of sentence structures, including grammatical elements such as adjective–noun agreement, dual forms of nouns and verbs, and irregular plural, imperative and auxiliary verbs to describe and compare people, actions and events, elaborate on ideas and opinions رياضة السباحة ممتعة ومفيدة خاصة هنا في أستراليا؛ بينما كرة القدم ليست مفيدة مع أنها شعبية and enrich their understanding and use of language. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language, and how Arabic speakers use particular language and gestures to convey their feelings about and attitudes towards other people and ideas.

Level of support

The class will likely comprise background learners with a range of prior experience in studying Arabic. Learners are supported through multilevel and differentiated tasks. Consolidation of prior learning is balanced with the provision of new, engaging and challenging experiences. As they develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, learners are supported to self-monitor and reflect on language use in response to their experiences in diverse contexts.

The role of English

The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Arabic being the principal language of communication. English may be used separately or in conjunction with Arabic to express ideas, personal views and experiences relating to communicating in Arabic and English in different contexts of interaction. Learners continue to develop a metalanguage for thinking and communicating about language, culture and their sense of identity from a bilingual perspective, and about the importance of maintaining their Arabic cultural heritage.

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Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate and sustain interactions with others by expressing and exchanging opinions on topics of interest, and maintain relationships through apologising, inviting or praising
[Key concepts: experiences, attitudes, etiquette, respect; Key processes: speaking, writing, expressing, inviting, accepting and declining, explaining]
(ACLARC154)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Take action in collaborative tasks, activities and experiences that involve negotiation, making arrangements, problem-solving and shared transactions
[Key concepts: negotiation, expressing preference, collaboration; Key processes: planning, discussing, agreeing/disagreeing, making decisions]
(ACLARC155)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Engage in classroom interactions and exchanges, clarifying meaning, and describing and explaining actions and responses
[Key concepts: opinion, perspective, mindful learning, exchange; Key processes: describing, explaining, clarifying, expressing]
(ACLARC156)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate, interpret and compare information and ideas from a variety of texts relating to topics of interest such as leisure, entertainment and special occasions
[Key concepts: representation, community; Key processes: identifying, classifying, comparing, summarising, relating, understanding]
(ACLARC157)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Present information to describe, compare and report on ideas and experiences in print, digital and multimodal formats selected to suit audience and purpose
[Key concepts: representation, experience, audience; Key processes: describing, summarising, comparing, reporting]
(ACLARC158)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Creating

Compare ways in which people, places and experiences are represented in different imaginative texts, analysing ideas, themes and messages and contrasting them with own experiences
[Key concepts: representation, morality, context; Key processes: analysing, comparing, contextualising, explaining]
(ACLARC159)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create and present imaginative texts, including multimodal and digital texts, such as songs, poems, plays, stories or video clips, involving fictional characters, events and contexts, to entertain different audiences
[Key concepts: imagination, emotion, context, audience; Key processes: composing, performing, building context and character, entertaining]
(ACLARC160)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa, compare own translations with others’, discuss differences and possible reasons and alternatives, and make language choices that best convey equivalent meaning
[Key concepts: meaning, equivalence, choice; Key processes: interpreting, comparing, refining]
(ACLARC161)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts on particular themes or events in different modes, including multimodal and digital modes, such as menus, brochures, cartoons or video clips, explaining culture-specific words and expressions, for example, by using captions and descriptions
[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: selecting, relating interculturally, designing]
(ACLARC162)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on cultural differences between Arabic and English communicative styles, and discuss how and why they modify language for different cultural perspectives
[Key concepts: communication, cultural perspectives; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, connecting]
(ACLARC163)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Reflect on how and why being a speaker of Arabic contributes to their sense of identity and is an important part of their Arabic cultural heritage
[Key concepts: cultural heritage, identity; Key processes: reflecting, explaining]
(ACLARC164)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand and apply rules of intonation and pronunciation in spoken texts, and apply writing conventions with increased accuracy in written texts
[Key concepts: writing conventions, pronunciation, sounds; Key processes: selecting, speaking, writing]
(ACLARU165)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand and use grammatical forms and structures, such as adjectivenoun agreement, adverbial phrases (time, place and manner), and irregular plural, imperative and auxiliary verbs, to expand on spoken and written ideas
[Key concepts: grammar, accuracy; Key processes: elaborating, speaking, writing]
(ACLARU166)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

Expand understanding of how the structure and language features of personal, informative and imaginative Arabic texts suit diverse audiences, contexts and purposes
[Key concept: textual conventions; Key processes: comparing, examining]
(ACLARU167)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Language variation and change

Explain how elements of communication and choice of language and register vary according to the cultural context and situation
[Key concepts: body language, expression, negotiation, choice; Key processes: reflecting, selecting, connecting]
(ACLARU168)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Explore and reflect on the impact of social, cultural and intercultural changes such as globalisation and new technologies on the use of Arabic in different contexts
[Key concepts: globalisation, technology, dynamic systems; Key processes: researching, explaining, reflecting]
(ACLARU169)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Understand and reflect on language choices made in everyday communication in order to express ideas and perspectives that relate to cultural elements
[Key concepts: cultural expression, representation; Key processes: analysing, selecting, reflecting]
(ACLARU170)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Arabic to initiate and sustain classroom interactions with others, to exchange views, for example, السباحة رياضة ممتعة؛ أعتقد أن السفر مفيد جدا , and express feelings such as أشعر بالفرح؛ بالسعادة عندما ألعب رياضت المفضلة؛ عندما أعزف الموسيقى . They use language conventions, such as الترقيم/الوقف والإملاء والقواعد ال التعريف؛ الفواصل والنقط في نهاية الجمل, vocabulary and sentence structures to apologise (for example, أنا آسف؛ أعتذر عن..., invite (for example, أدعوك لحفل عيد ميلادي...؛ أرجو أن تحضر ..., and offer praise, for example, رأيي أن ...؛ أعتقد أن... . They clarify meaning, explain actions and responses, and complete transactions by negotiating, making arrangements and solving problems, for example, ماذا لو أكملنا البحث مع؟؛ هل تريد أن أساعدك؟ , سوف أتصل بك بعد المدرسة؛ أراك غدا صباحا؛ سوف أرسل البحث بالإيميل . They apply pronunciation and rhythm patterns in spoken Arabic to a range of sentence types. They locate, interpret and compare information and ideas on topics of interest from a range of written, spoken and multimodal texts, and convey information and ideas in a range of formats selected to suit...

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By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Arabic to initiate and sustain classroom interactions with others, to exchange views, for example, السباحة رياضة ممتعة؛ أعتقد أن السفر مفيد جدا , and express feelings such as أشعر بالفرح؛ بالسعادة عندما ألعب رياضت المفضلة؛ عندما أعزف الموسيقى . They use language conventions, such as الترقيم/الوقف والإملاء والقواعد ال التعريف؛ الفواصل والنقط في نهاية الجمل, vocabulary and sentence structures to apologise (for example, أنا آسف؛ أعتذر عن..., invite (for example, أدعوك لحفل عيد ميلادي...؛ أرجو أن تحضر ..., and offer praise, for example, رأيي أن ...؛ أعتقد أن... . They clarify meaning, explain actions and responses, and complete transactions by negotiating, making arrangements and solving problems, for example, ماذا لو أكملنا البحث مع؟؛ هل تريد أن أساعدك؟ , سوف أتصل بك بعد المدرسة؛ أراك غدا صباحا؛ سوف أرسل البحث بالإيميل . They apply pronunciation and rhythm patterns in spoken Arabic to a range of sentence types. They locate, interpret and compare information and ideas on topics of interest from a range of written, spoken and multimodal texts, and convey information and ideas in a range of formats selected to suit audience and purpose. They express opinions on the ways in which characters and events are represented in imaginative texts, and explain ideas, themes and messages, for example, في القصة؛ هيام أذكى من عبير ؛ في النص الأول... بينما في النص الثاني ... . Students create texts with imagined places, events, people and experiences in a range of forms to entertain different audiences. They use grammatical forms and features such as adjective–noun agreement for example, الشاب الوسيم/الشابة الجميلة, adverbial phrases to indicate time, place and manner for example, في الصباح الباكر؛ في منتصف الطريق, and irregular, plural, imperative and auxiliary verbs for example, كان وأخواتها ,فعل الأمر جمع التكسير, to elaborate their oral and written communication. They translate texts from Arabic into English and vice versa, and compare own translations with others’, explaining differences and possible reasons and alternatives. They make language choices that best reflect meaning to create bilingual texts, identifying and using words and expressions that carry specific cultural meaning. Students explain how and why they adjust their language use according to different cultural contexts, and how being a speaker of Arabic contributes to their own sense of identity.

Students apply their knowledge of writing conventions, such as punctuation, to convey specific meaning in a range of texts, for example, الفواصل وعلامات الإستفهام والاستنكار والتعجب والجمل المبطنة . They analyse the structure and linguistic features of a range of personal, informative and imaginative texts and explain how these features are influenced by the context, audience and purpose. Students explain how and why changes to social settings affect verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. They explain the impact of social, cultural and intercultural changes such as globalisation and new technologies on the use of Arabic in different contexts. They explain how language choices they make reflect cultural ideas, assumptions and perspectives, for example, العبارات الشعبية؛ مصطلحات ذات دلائل دينية؛ العناوين الذكورية مثل رئيس للمذكر والمؤنث.

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Arabic language and culture and a range of strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and sustainability issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently...

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The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Arabic language and culture and a range of strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and sustainability issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Arabic in these.

Arabic language learning and use

Learners are immersed in Arabic language, initiating and engaging in discussions and debates on topics of interest, and responding to enquiries. They reflect on the cultural and linguistic appropriateness of their language use in interactions and make necessary adjustments. They engage in an increasing range of interactions with others, seeking and giving advice لأنك تحب الرياضة؛ أنصحك بالسباحة لأنها مفيدة جدا, discussing future plans and aspirations يزداد الفقر في المجتمع ويجب على الجميع أن يحاربه , and justifying their ideas and opinions أنا أحترم رأيك كثيراَ؛ لا أتفق معك إطلاقاَ. They access and evaluate information about places, events, people, experiences and cultures from diverse sources, and convey perspectives and views on topical issues such as friends, family and relationships, social issues, youth culture, community matters and the natural and built environments, making connections with their own ideas and experiences. Learners produce a range of texts, such as informative, narrative, descriptive, procedural or persuasive texts, for a variety of contexts, audiences and purposes. They use their imagination to create and present texts, such as stories, plays, poems and speeches, and to express ideas, attitudes and values through different characters, events, settings and techniques. They develop translating and interpreting techniques and intercultural awareness in order to mediate between languages and cultures. Through their engagement with diverse texts and resources, students explore how cultural practices, concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in texts and how language choices shape and reflect perspectives and meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Arabic speakers both locally and globally through a variety of means and modes of communication, including digital, online, collaborative performances and group discussions. The context of interaction extends beyond the classroom and involves investigating and reporting on issues in the local community and transacting with local Arabic speakers to negotiate services. These experiences provide learners with a sense of connectedness and purpose as Arabic and English speakers.

Texts and resources

Learners use diverse resources such as Arabic newspapers, magazines, documentaries, films, stories, songs, television programs, entertainment performances and web pages as references to assist them with discussions and research projects on Arabic language and culture. They explore a variety of text types, such as poems, articles, formal letters, interviews and speeches, and engage with a range of informative, historical or literary perspectives, views and arguments. Learners use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.

Features of Arabic language use

Learners apply appropriate pronunciation, rhythm, stress and tone and a variety of language features and complex sentence structures to enhance their spoken and written communication. They apply complex grammatical structures, such as indirect object pronouns and passive voice, to express their ideas objectively in texts such as articles and speeches, for example, لا تهتم لقد دُفعت فاتورة الطعام . They expand on their views and opinions by using persuasive language, such as the subjunctive and imperative moods (لا تنسوا؛ شاهدوا الفيلم الاسطوري, and use cohesive devices to link and sequence ideas and information, for example, في البداية أود أن أحدثكم عن يوم النظافة. They analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, and develop the language of reflection in Arabic.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system, with opportunities for learners to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback combines with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, for example, through portfolios, peer review or e-journalling.

The role of English

Arabic is predominantly used as the medium for classroom interaction and content delivery. English is used only when necessary to allow for further reflection on and discussion or explanation of more demanding concepts, particularly when making connections between language and culture. Learners explore how language influences cultural experiences and ways of thinking and of viewing the world. They examine their own personal and cultural identity and reflect on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved. They question the assumptions that Arabic and English speakers bring to interactions, and discuss ways to increase mutual understanding. They view their bilingualism and biculturalism as an asset for themselves and for Australia.

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Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Communicating
Socialising

Initiate, sustain and extend interactions with others through seeking and giving advice, and discussing future plans, aspirations, relationships and social issues
[Key concepts: relationships, education, community, social issues; Key processes: advising, explaining, persuading, commenting, justifying]
(ACLARC171)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding

Negotiate actions and contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions in interactions related to shared tasks, transactions and problem-solving, managing different views and perspectives
[Key concepts: roles, perspectives, responsibility; Key processes: commenting, selecting, evaluating]
(ACLARC172)

Literacy Numeracy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Engage in language learning tasks and experiences, discussing and justifying ideas and opinions
[Key concepts: interconnection across concepts and actions, mindful learning; Key processes: discussing, connecting, justifying]
(ACLARC173)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability
Informing

Locate, analyse, interpret and evaluate information from online and digital sources on issues of interest to young people, making connections with own experiences and considering various perspectives
[Key concepts: representation, perspective, private and public world; Key processes: summarising, interpreting, evaluating, connecting, relating]
(ACLARC174)

Literacy Numeracy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Construct and present texts in varied styles and formats to convey own and others’ perspectives on ideas and information for different contexts, audiences and purposes
[Key concepts: audience, purpose, media, perspectives; Key processes: constructing, persuading, comparing, evaluating, connecting]
(ACLARC175)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability
Creating

Explore a range of imaginative texts, analysing themes, values and techniques, and discussing how aspects of language and culture help create particular effects
[Key concepts: culture, emotion, values, style; Key processes: analysing, discussing, interpreting, evaluating]
(ACLARC176)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create and present imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values through characters, events and settings for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes
[Key concepts: imagination, creativity, morality; Key processes: composing, engaging, projecting, presenting]
(ACLARC177)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Translating

Translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa for different audiences and contexts, and reflect on how cultural values, attitudes and perspectives are represented in each language
[Key concepts: audience, context, perspective, values; Key processes: reflecting, interpreting, comparing, analysing]
(ACLARC178)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Create bilingual texts that reflect aspects of culture for Arabic- speaking and English-speaking audiences in the school and wider community, for example, pamphlets, travel brochures or road directories
[Key concepts: representation, cultural literacy; Key processes: interpreting, referencing, relating interculturally]
(ACLARC179)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Reflecting

Reflect on how meanings vary according to cultural assumptions that Arabic and English speakers bring to interactions, and take responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding
[Key concepts: cultural assumptions, judgement; Key processes: reflecting, relating interculturally]
(ACLARC180)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Reflect on own cultural identity and how it is both shaped by and influences ways of communicating, thinking and behaving
[Key concepts: perception, identity, communication; Key processes: discussing, evaluating, reflecting]
(ACLARC181)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Understanding
Systems of language

Understand how rules of Arabic pronunciation, including patterns of stress and rules of pause, and writing conventions enhance meaning and aesthetic effect
[Key concepts: fluency, complexity, appropriateness; Key processes: applying, analysing, synthesising]
(ACLARU182)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Analyse how the use of grammatical elements such as indirect object, passive voice, dual form, verb tense and word order impact on tone, speech level and formality, and on meaning-making
[Key concepts: register, grammatical systems, meaning; Key processes: analysing, explaining, manipulating, applying]
(ACLARU183)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking

Understand the relationship between purpose, audience, context, linguistic features, and the textual and cultural elements associated with different types of texts, such as persuasive, argumentative and expository texts
[Key concepts: perspective, purpose, audience; Key processes: analysing, correlating, discussing, explaining]
(ACLARU184)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding
Language variation and change

Analyse and explain how variations in Arabic language use relate to roles, relationships and the context of interactions, and consider how and why these would differ from interactions in English or other languages represented in the classroom
[Key concepts: genre, variation, intercultural literacy; Key processes: analysing, explaining, reflecting]
(ACLARU185)

Literacy Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding

Reflect on the dynamic nature of language, relating it to constantly changing environments and cultural conditions such as contact with other languages and cultures and changing circumstances in local and global contexts
[Key concepts: communication, influence, power of language, changing environment; Key processes: investigating, examining, analysing, explaining, reflecting]
(ACLARU186)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Intercultural understanding
Role of language and culture

Explore how language both shapes and reflects thoughts and world views and encourages action and reaction, and is shaped by community and individual cultural experiences
[Key concepts: cultural experience, thought, behaviour; Key processes: discussing, reflecting, expressing opinions]
(ACLARU187)

Literacy Information and communication technology capability Critical and creative thinking Personal and social capability Ethical understanding Intercultural understanding Sustainability

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Arabic to initiate, sustain and extend formal and informal interactions with the teacher, peers and others in a range of settings. They use language spontaneously to respond to others, seek and give advice for example, كيف أستطيع أن ...؛ أعتقد أ..., describe relationships for example, عندي أصدقاء كثر؛ علاقتي بعائلتي وطيدة؛ أحب معلمتي كثيرا لأنها حنونة, discuss aspirations for example, أريد أن أعمل في مكدونالدز في العطلة؛ أريد أن اصبح طبيبا؛ أحلم أن أكون رائد فضاء and future plans (for example, في المستقبل؛ أريد أن أسافر إلى أوروبا؛ عندما أكبر؛ أريد أن أدخل الجامعة, compare experiences for example, بيتي القديم كان أجمل من بيتي الحالي , and justify opinions for example, لأن...؛ بسبب... ) on social issues of interest to them. They listen to different views and perspectives when interacting with others, and take action, solve problems and contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions. They apply pronunciation rules and rhythm to complex sentences to enhance spoken interactions. They analyse, interpret and evaluate information on topical issues of interest to young people, making connections with their own experiences...

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By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Arabic to initiate, sustain and extend formal and informal interactions with the teacher, peers and others in a range of settings. They use language spontaneously to respond to others, seek and give advice for example, كيف أستطيع أن ...؛ أعتقد أ..., describe relationships for example, عندي أصدقاء كثر؛ علاقتي بعائلتي وطيدة؛ أحب معلمتي كثيرا لأنها حنونة, discuss aspirations for example, أريد أن أعمل في مكدونالدز في العطلة؛ أريد أن اصبح طبيبا؛ أحلم أن أكون رائد فضاء and future plans (for example, في المستقبل؛ أريد أن أسافر إلى أوروبا؛ عندما أكبر؛ أريد أن أدخل الجامعة, compare experiences for example, بيتي القديم كان أجمل من بيتي الحالي , and justify opinions for example, لأن...؛ بسبب... ) on social issues of interest to them. They listen to different views and perspectives when interacting with others, and take action, solve problems and contribute ideas, opinions and suggestions. They apply pronunciation rules and rhythm to complex sentences to enhance spoken interactions. They analyse, interpret and evaluate information on topical issues of interest to young people, making connections with their own experiences and considering various perspectives. They convey information and perspectives using different text types and modes of presentation to suit different contexts and audiences and to achieve different purposes. They share their response to different imaginative texts by analysing themes for example, الفكرة الأساسية في النص؛ هدف النص؛ الموضوع , techniques for example, الكناية والاستعارة والتشبيه and values, and identify ways in which aspects of language and culture create particular effects, such as المشاعر التي يؤججها النص. Students create imaginative texts for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes, to express ideas, attitudes and values through characters, events and settings. When creating texts, they use a variety of grammatical elements to enhance meaning, such as indirect object, passive and active voice, negation for example, ليس عندي وقت؛ لا يوجد وقت؛ لن أجد الوقت, verb tense and word order for example, الجملة الاسمية والجملة الفعلية؛ ظرف الزمان أو المكان في بداية الجملة, and time and place clauses such as في وقت من الأوقات؛ في المجتمع الأسترالي؛ في الشارع العام . Students translate and interpret texts from Arabic into English and vice versa and explain how cultural values, attitudes and perspectives are represented. They create a range of bilingual texts for a variety of purposes and audiences. They explain the relationship between language, culture and identity, question perceptions, and modify language and behaviours in intercultural interactions as appropriate.

Students apply their understanding of complex pronunciation rules and writing conventions, such as stress patterns and rules of pause, to enhance meaning and aesthetic effect. They analyse a range of persuasive, argumentative and expository texts and explain the relationship between context, purpose, audience, linguistic features, and textual and cultural elements such as التحية والتوقيع في بداية الرسائل والتمني بالتوفيق والصحة. They explain how and why variations in Arabic language use relate to roles, relationships and contexts of interaction. Students analyse the ways in which languages change in response to changing environments. They explain how language use reflects thoughts and world views and is shaped by cultural experiences.

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