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Foundation Year

Foundation Year Level Description

Personal and Family Histories

The Foundation curriculum provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may include stories from different cultures and...

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The Foundation curriculum provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may include stories from different cultures and other parts of the world. As participants in their own history, students build on their knowledge and understanding of how the past is different from the present.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • What is my history and how do I know?
  • What stories do other people tell about the past?
  • How can stories of the past be told and shared?

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Foundation Year Content Descriptions

Historical Skills
Historical questions and research

Foundation Year Achievement Standard

By the end of the Foundation year, students identify similarities and differences between families. They recognise how important family events are commemorated.

Students sequence familiar events in order. They pose questions about their past. Students relate a story about their past using a range of texts.

 

Year 1

Year 1 Level Description

Present and Past Family Life

The Year 1 curriculum provides a study of present and past family life within the context of the students’ own world. Students learn about similarities and differences in family life by comparing...

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The Year 1 curriculum provides a study of present and past family life within the context of the students’ own world. Students learn about similarities and differences in family life by comparing the present with the past. They begin to explore the links, and the changes that occur, over time.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge, and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • How has family life changed or remained the same over time?
  • How can we show that the present is different from or similar to the past?
  • How do we describe the sequence of time?

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Year 1 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Present and past family life

How the present, past and future are signified by terms indicating time such as ‘a long time ago’, ‘then and now’, ‘now and then’, ‘old and new’, ‘tomorrow’, as well as by dates and changes that may have personal significance, such as birthdays, celebrations and seasons (ACHHK029)

Differences and similarities between students' daily lives and life during their parents’ and grandparents’ childhoods, including family traditions, leisure time and communications. (ACHHK030)

Historical Skills

Year 1 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 1, students explain how some aspects of daily life have changed over recent time while others have remained the same. They describe personal and family events that have significance.

Students sequence events in order, using everyday terms about the passing of time. They pose questions about the past and examine sources (physical and visual) to suggest answers to these questions. Students relate stories about life in the past, using a range of texts.

 

Year 2

Year 2 Level Description

The Past in the Present

The Year 2 curriculum provides a study of local history. Students explore, recognise and appreciate the history of their local area by examining remains of the past and considering why they should...

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The Year 2 curriculum provides a study of local history. Students explore, recognise and appreciate the history of their local area by examining remains of the past and considering why they should be preserved.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge, and Understanding and Historical Skills.

These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • What aspects of the past can you see today? What do they tell us?
  • What remains of the past are important to the local community? Why?
  • How have changes in technology shaped our daily life?

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Year 2 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
The past in the present

The history of a significant person, building, site or part of the natural environment in the local community and what it reveals about the past (ACHHK044)

The importance today of an historical site of cultural or spiritual significance; for example, a community building, a landmark, a war memorial (ACHHK045)

The impact of changing technology on people’s lives (at home and in the ways they worked, travelled, communicated, and played in the past) (ACHHK046)

Historical Skills
Historical questions and research

Year 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students analyse aspects of daily life to identify how some have changed over recent time while others have remained the same. They describe a person, site or event of significance in the local community.

Students sequence events in order, using a range of terms related to time. They pose questions about the past and use sources provided (physical, visual, oral) to answer these questions. They compare objects from the past and present. Students develop a narrative about the past using a range of texts.

 

Year 3

Year 3 Level Description

Community and Remembrance

The Year 3 curriculum provides a study of identity and diversity in both a local and broader context. Moving from the heritage of their local area, students explore the historical features and diversity...

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The Year 3 curriculum provides a study of identity and diversity in both a local and broader context. Moving from the heritage of their local area, students explore the historical features and diversity of their community as represented in symbols and emblems of significance, and celebrations and commemorations, both locally and in other places around the world.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge, and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • Who lived here first and how do we know?
  • How has our community changed? What features have been lost and what features have been retained?
  • What is the nature of the contribution made by different groups and individuals in the community?
  • How and why do people choose to remember significant events of the past?

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Year 3 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Community and remembrance

The importance of Country and Place to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples who belong to a local area. (This is intended to be a local area study with a focus on one Language group; however, if information or sources are not readily available, another representative area may be studied) (ACHHK060)

ONE important example of change and ONE important example of continuity over time in the local community, region or state/territory; for example, in relation to the areas of transport, work, education, natural and built environments, entertainment, daily life (ACHHK061)

Days and weeks celebrated or commemorated in Australia (including Australia Day, ANZAC Day, Harmony Week, National Reconciliation Week, NAIDOC week and National Sorry Day) and the importance of symbols and emblems. (ACHHK063)

Celebrations and commemorations in other places around the world; for example, Bastille Day in France, Independence Day in the USA, including those that are observed in Australia such as Chinese New Year, Christmas Day, Diwali, Easter, Hanukkah, the Moon Festival and Ramadan (ACHHK064)

Year 3 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 3, students explain how communities changed in the past. They describe the experiences of an individual or group. They identify events and aspects of the past that have significance in the present.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, with reference to key dates. They pose questions about the past and locate information from sources (written, physical, visual, oral) to answer these questions. Students develop texts, including narratives, using terms denoting time.

 

Year 4

Year 4 Level Description

First Contacts

The Year 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Beginning with the history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, students examine European exploration and...

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The Year 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Beginning with the history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, students examine European exploration and colonisation in Australia and throughout the world up to the early 1800s. Students examine the impact of exploration on other societies, how these societies interacted with newcomers, and how these experiences contributed to their cultural diversity.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • Why did the great journeys of exploration occur?
  • What was life like for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples before the arrival of the Europeans?
  • Why did the Europeans settle in Australia?
  • What was the nature and consequence of contact between Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples and early traders, explorers and settlers?

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Year 4 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
First contacts

The diversity of Australia's first peoples and the long and continuous connection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Country/ Place (land, sea, waterways and skies) and the implications for their daily lives. (ACHHK077)

The journey(s) of AT LEAST ONE world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with other societies and any impacts. (ACHHK078)

Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival. (ACHHK079)

The nature of contact between Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders Peoples and others, for example, the Macassans and the Europeans, and the effects of these interactions on, for example families and the environment (ACHHK080)

View additional details about Critical and creative thinking View additional details about Intercultural understanding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

Year 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 4, students explain how and why life changed in the past, and identify aspects of the past that remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group over time. They recognise the significance of events in bringing about change.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order to identify key dates. They pose a range of questions about the past. They identify sources (written, physical, visual, oral), and locate information to answer these questions. They recognise different points of view. Students develop and present texts, including narratives, using historical terms.

 

Year 5

Year 5 Level Description

The Australian Colonies

The Year 5 curriculum provides a study of colonial Australia in the 1800s. Students look at the founding of British colonies and the development of a colony. They learn about what life was like...

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The Year 5 curriculum provides a study of colonial Australia in the 1800s. Students look at the founding of British colonies and the development of a colony. They learn about what life was like for different groups of people in the colonial period. They examine significant events and people, political and economic developments, social structures, and settlement patterns.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance.

These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • What do we know about the lives of people in Australia’s colonial past and how do we know?
  • How did an Australian colony develop over time and why?
  • How did colonial settlement change the environment?
  • What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped Australian colonies?

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Year 5 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
The Australian colonies

Reasons (economic, political and social) for the establishment of British colonies in Australia after 1800. (ACHHK093)

The nature of convict or colonial presence, including the factors that influenced patterns of development, aspects of the daily life of the inhabitants (including Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples) and how the environment changed. (ACHHK094)

The impact of a significant development or event on a colony; for example, frontier conflict, the gold rushes, the Eureka Stockade, internal exploration, the advent of rail, the expansion of farming, drought. (ACHHK095)

The reasons people migrated to Australia from Europe and Asia, and the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony. (ACHHK096)

The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping a colony; for example, explorers, farmers, entrepreneurs, artists, writers, humanitarians, religious and political leaders, and Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. (ACHHK097)

Historical Skills
Chronology, terms and concepts

Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS098)

Explanation and communication

Develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source materials (ACHHS105)

Year 5 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 5, students identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities, and describe aspects of the past that remained the same. They describe the different experiences of people in the past. They describe the significance of people and events in bringing about change.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, using timelines. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate and record information related to this inquiry. They examine sources to identify points of view. Students develop, organise and present their texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, using historical terms and concepts.

 

Year 6

Year 6 Level Description

Australia as a nation

The Year 6 curriculum moves from colonial Australia to the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students explore the factors that led to Federation and experiences of democracy...

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The Year 6 curriculum moves from colonial Australia to the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students explore the factors that led to Federation and experiences of democracy and citizenship over time. Students understand the significance of Australia’s British heritage, the Westminster system, and other models that influenced the development of Australia’s system of government. Students learn about the way of life of people who migrated to Australia and their contributions to Australia’s economic and social development.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance.

These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; they may be integrated across learning areas and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • Why and how did Australia become a nation?
  • How did Australian society change throughout the twentieth century?
  • Who were the people who came to Australia? Why did they come?
  • What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of Australian society?

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Year 6 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Australia as a nation

Key figures and events that led to Australia’s Federation, including British and American influences on Australia’s system of law and government. (ACHHK113)

Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, migrants, women, and children (ACHHK114)

Stories of groups of people who migrated to Australia (including from ONE Asian country) and the reasons they migrated, such as World War II and Australian migration programs since the war. (ACHHK115)

The contribution of individuals and groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and migrants, to the development of Australian society, for example in areas such as the economy, education, science, the arts, sport. (ACHHK116)

Historical Skills
Chronology, terms and concepts

Sequence historical people and events. (ACHHS117)

Explanation and communication

Develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source materials (ACHHS124)

Year 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 6, students identify change and continuity and describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the different experiences of people in the past. They explain the significance of an individual and group.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, and represent time by creating timelines. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate and compare information to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to identify and describe points of view. Students develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their information, they use historical terms and concepts and incorporate relevant sources.

 

Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

The Ancient World

The Year 7 curriculum provides a study of history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE). It was a...

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The Year 7 curriculum provides a study of history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE). It was a period defined by the development of cultural practices and organised societies. The study of the ancient world includes the discoveries (the remains of the past and what we know) and the mysteries (what we do not know) about this period of history, in a range of societies including Australia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • How do we know about the ancient past?
  • Why and where did the earliest societies develop?
  • What emerged as the defining characteristics of ancient societies?
  • What have been the legacies of ancient societies?

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Year 7 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Overview of the ancient world

The following content is to be taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE), as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the ancient world (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, China and the Maya) includes the following:

Depth studies

There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study elective will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with the overview content and/or with other depth study electives.

1 Investigating the ancient past
Students build on and consolidate their understanding of historical inquiry from previous years in depth, using a range of sources for the study of the ancient past.
2 The Mediterranean world
Students investigate ONE of these Mediterranean societies in depth: Egypt or Greece or Rome.
3 The Asian world
Students investigate ONE of these Asian societies in depth: China or India
Historical Skills
Chronology, terms and concepts
Explanation and communication

Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged (ACHHS213)

Year 7 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 7, students suggest reasons for change and continuity over time. They describe the effects of change on societies, individuals and groups. They describe events and developments from the perspective of different people who lived at the time. Students explain the role of groups and the significance of particular individuals in society. They identify past events and developments that have been interpreted in different ways.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, using dating conventions to represent and measure time. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They identify and select a range of sources and locate, compare and use information to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to explain points of view. When interpreting sources, they identify their origin and purpose. Students develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, incorporate relevant sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

 

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

The Ancient to the Modern World

The Year 8 curriculum provides study of history from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750. This was when major civilisations around the...

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The Year 8 curriculum provides study of history from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750. This was when major civilisations around the world came into contact with each other. Social, economic, religious, and political beliefs were often challenged and significantly changed. It was the period when the modern world began to take shape.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • How did societies change from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern age?
  • What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies?
  • What were the causes and effects of contact between societies in this period?
  • Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?

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Year 8 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Overview of the ancient to modern world

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750, as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the ancient to modern world (Byzantine, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Ottoman, Khmer, Mongols, Yuan and Ming dynasties, Aztec, Inca) includes the following:

Depth studies

There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to four electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with the overview content and/or with other depth study electives.

1 The Western and Islamic world
Students investigate ONE of these societies/empires from the Western or Islamic world in depth: the Vikings or Medieval Europe or the Ottoman Empire or Renaissance Italy.
2 The Asia-Pacific world
Students investigate ONE of these Asia-Pacific societies in depth: the Angkor/Khmer Empire or Shogunate Japan or the Polynesian expansion across the Pacific. N.B. Where appropriate, this depth study may include some reference beyond the end of the period c.1750.
3 Expanding contacts
Students investigate ONE of the following historical developments in depth to explore the interaction of societies in this period: the Mongol expansion or the Black Death in Africa, Asia and Europe or the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas.
Historical Skills
Chronology, terms and concepts
Explanation and communication

Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged (ACHHS156)

Year 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students recognise and explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They explain the causes and effects of events and developments. They identify the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of individuals and groups and how they were influenced by the beliefs and values of their society. They describe different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework with reference to periods of time. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They analyse, select and organise information from primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students identify and explain different points of view in sources. When interpreting sources, they identify their origin and purpose, and distinguish between fact and opinion. Students develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations, incorporating analysis. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

 

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

The Making of the Modern World

The Year 9 curriculum provides a study of the history of the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918. It was a period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked...

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The Year 9 curriculum provides a study of the history of the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918. It was a period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked and thought. It was an era of nationalism and imperialism, and the colonisation of Australia was part of the expansion of European power. The period culminated in World War I 1914-1918, the ‘war to end all wars’.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • What were the changing features of the movements of people from 1750 to 1918?
  • How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period?
  • What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period?
  • What was the significance of World War I?

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Year 9 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Overview of the making of the modern world

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1750 – 1918) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the making of the modern world includes the following:

Depth studies

There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or with other depth study electives.

1 Making a better world?
Students investigate how life changed in the period in depth through the study of ONE of these major developments: the Industrial Revolution or Movement of peoples or Progressive ideas and movements. The study includes the causes and effects of the development, and the Australian experience.
2 Australia and Asia
Students investigate the history of Australia OR an Asian society in the period 1750 – 1918 in depth.
3 World War I
Students investigate key aspects of World War I and the Australian experience of the war, including the nature and significance of the war in world and Australian history.
Historical Skills
Chronology, terms and concepts

Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS164)

Explanation and communication

Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS174)

Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS175)

Year 9 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 9, students refer to key events and the actions of individuals and groups to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and make judgments about their importance. They explain the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of these events and developments over the short and long term. They explain different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, with reference to periods of time and their duration. When researching, students develop different kinds of questions to frame an historical inquiry. They interpret, process, analyse and organise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and...

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By the end of Year 9, students refer to key events and the actions of individuals and groups to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and make judgments about their importance. They explain the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of these events and developments over the short and long term. They explain different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, with reference to periods of time and their duration. When researching, students develop different kinds of questions to frame an historical inquiry. They interpret, process, analyse and organise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students examine sources to compare different points of view. When evaluating these sources, they analyse origin and purpose, and draw conclusions about their usefulness. They develop their own interpretations about the past. Students develop texts, particularly explanations and discussions, incorporating historical interpretations. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their conclusions, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and they reference these sources.

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Year 10

Year 10 Level Description

The Modern World and Australia

The Year 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. The twentieth century became...

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The Year 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. The twentieth century became a critical period in Australia’s social, cultural, economic and political development. The transformation of the modern world during a time of political turmoil, global conflict and international cooperation provides a necessary context for understanding Australia’s development, its place within the Asia-Pacific region, and its global standing.

The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.

The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key Inquiry Questions

A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

  • How did the nature of global conflict change during the twentieth century?
  • What were the consequences of World War II? How did these consequences shape the modern world?
  • How was Australian society affected by other significant global events and changes in this period?

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Year 10 Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Overview of the modern world and Australia

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the year. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1918 to the present) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the Modern World and Australia includes the following:

Depth studies

There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the year. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or integrated with other depth study electives.

1 World War II
Students investigate wartime experiences through a study of World War II in depth. This includes a study of the causes, events, outcome and broader impact of the conflict as an episode in world history, and the nature of Australia’s involvement.
2 Rights and freedoms
Students investigate struggles for human rights in depth. This will include how rights and freedoms have been ignored, demanded or achieved in Australia and in the broader world context.
3 The globalising world
Students investigate one major global influence that has shaped Australian society in depth, including the development of the global influence during the twentieth century. Students study ONE of these electives: Popular culture or The environment movement or Migration experiences.
Historical Skills
Chronology, terms and concepts

Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS182)

Explanation and communication

Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS192)

Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS193)

Year 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 10, students refer to key events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their relative importance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students explain the significance of events and developments from a range of perspectives. They explain different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. When researching, students develop, evaluate and modify questions to frame an historical inquiry. They

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By the end of Year 10, students refer to key events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their relative importance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students explain the significance of events and developments from a range of perspectives. They explain different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. When researching, students develop, evaluate and modify questions to frame an historical inquiry. They process, analyse and synthesise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students analyse sources to identify motivations, values and attitudes. When evaluating these sources, they analyse and draw conclusions about their usefulness, taking into account their origin, purpose, and context. They develop and justify their own interpretations about the past. Students develop texts, particularly explanations and discussions, incorporating historical argument. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their arguments, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and they reference these sources.

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