Students:

demonstrate concepts of counting using every day experiences

examples ›

Examples:

- showing anticipation that something will happen on the count of 1, 2, 3

recognise the effects of adding to and taking away from a collection of objects

examples ›

Examples:

- recognising that a pile of books gets bigger when adding to it

identify situations that involve the use of money

examples ›

Examples:

- using pictures of the local community to identify places where money can be used

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

connect and order number names, numerals and groups of objects using numbers up to two digits

examples ›

Examples:

- sorting numbered objects into ascending order or identifying how many members there are in the school sport’s team

solve everyday addition and share stories

examples ›

Examples:

- modelling a number story on a favourite book or multimedia presentation

recognise the different value of coins and notes in the Australian monetary system

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

model, represent, order and use numbers up to four digits

examples ›

Examples:

- estimating growth of living things and representing prediction by making a chart

estimate the solution to a problem and then calculate the answer

examples ›

identify and use combinations of coins and notes for simple purchases

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

model, represent, order and use numbers up to five digits

examples ›

Examples:

- estimating the quantity of supplies for the First Fleet

estimate a solution to a problem and then check the solution by recalling addition, subtraction, multiplication and division facts

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating the difference between the number of convicts who left Britain on the First Fleet and the number who arrived in Australia

estimate the change from simple purchases

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

identify, describe and use numbers larger than one million

examples ›

Examples:

- estimating and comparing population growth of the twentieth century in different countries or states of Australia

solve problems and check calculations using efficient mental and written strategies

examples ›

create simple financial plans, budgets and cost predictions

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

compare, order and use positive and negative numbers to solve everyday problems

examples ›

Examples:

- recording different boiling and freezing points in an experiment

solve complex problems by estimating and calculating using efficient mental, written and digital strategies

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating the running costs of a range of household appliances with different energy ratings

identify and justify ‘best value for money’ decisions

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing different phone plans and presenting a reason for purchasing the chosen plan

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

use different ways to represent very large and very small numbers including scientific notation

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of nations or representation of atoms in different materials

solve and model problems involving complex data by estimating and calculating using a variety of efficient mental, written and digital strategies

examples ›

Examples:

- using statistics to predict trends such as the use of social media in different age groups

evaluate financial plans to support specific financial goals

examples ›

Examples:

- developing a budget/ financial plan to save for a desired item taking into account the interest earned

Students:

recognise simple patterns in everyday contexts

examples ›

Examples:

- recognising patterns in games, music, artwork

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

describe and continue patterns

examples ›

Examples:

- continuing simple patterns using three different colours or repeating a pattern in music

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

identify, describe and create everyday patterns

examples ›

Examples:

- creating a pattern based on the petal structure of a flower

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

identify and describe trends in everyday patterns

examples ›

Examples:

- creating a pattern that could be used to produce a mosaic

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

identify and describe pattern rules and relationships that help to identify trends

examples ›

Examples:

- survey dates in a local cemetery to find clues about patterns of settlement

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

identify trends using number rules and relationships

examples ›

Examples:

- using fuel consumptions vs. distance data to determine patterns of a vehicle’s fuel consumption

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

explain how the practical application of patterns can be used to identify trends

examples ›

Examples:

- using mobile phone bills to identify usage trends

Students:

recognise a ‘whole’ and ‘parts of a whole’ within everyday contexts

examples ›

Examples:

- separating objects or dividing materials into non-equal parts

Level 1b is the starting point for this sub-element

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

recognise that a whole object can be divided into equal parts

examples ›

Examples:

- fold or cut a shape into equal parts

identify quantities such as more, less and the same in everyday comparisons

examples ›

Examples:

- pouring a liquid equally into two containers or identifying that one storage container is larger than another

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

visualise and describe halves and quarters

examples ›

solve problems using halves and quarters

examples ›

Examples:

- using kitchen measuring equipment to show 2 half cup measures can be used instead of a 1 cup measure

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

visualise, describe and order tenths, hundredths, 1-place and 2-place decimals

examples ›

Examples:

- putting the amounts of money raised by different classes in a school fundraiser into order

solve problems using equivalent fractions for tenths, hundredths, 1-place and 2-place decimals

examples ›

Examples:

- finding the time difference between the fastest and slowest times for a class Beep test

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

visualise, describe and order equivalent fractions, decimals and simple percentages

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining how to make a drink using 20% fruit, 30% lemonade and 50% fruit juice

solve problems using equivalent fractions, decimals and simple percentages

examples ›

Examples:

- using migration statistics to show which 50-year period in Australia’s history had the largest percentage of growth

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

visualise and describe the proportions of percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining the sizes of different cultural groups as proportions of the population of the local community

solve problems using simple percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing and contrasting trends in migration from Asian countries to Australia since World War II

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

illustrate and order relationships for fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating and plotting the savings made on a variable interest rate mortgage for the past 5 years

solve problems involving fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- using proportional reasoning to assess the impact of changes in society and significant events, for example population loss from the 1919 influenza epidemic

Students:

sort or match objects according to their features

examples ›

Examples:

- sorting objects by features of shape, size,colour and function

demonstrate awareness of position of self and objects in relation to everyday contexts

examples ›

Examples:

- following actions to a song or dance

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

sort and name simple 2D shapes and 3D objects

examples ›

Examples:

- grouping 2D shapes and 3D objects by their features colour and materials

follow directions to demonstrate understanding of common position words and movements

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

identify, sort and describe common 2D shapes and 3D objects

examples ›

give and follow directions on maps and diagrams of familiar locations

examples ›

Examples:

- using the language of position and movement to direct a friend to a new location

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

visualise, sort, identify and describe symmetry, shapes and angles in the environment

examples ›

Examples:

- recording the angles of the shots hit by a batsman in a cricket match

interpret information, locate positions and describe routes on maps and diagrams using simple scales, legends and directional language

examples ›

Examples:

- creating and labelling a diagram showing the location of historical features in the local community

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

visualise, sort, describe and compare the features of objects such as prisms and pyramids in the environment

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining why some angles are used more frequently in built environments than others

identify and describe routes and locations, using grid reference systems and directional language such as north or north east

examples ›

Examples:

- using a street map to describe how to locate a friend’s house

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

visualise, describe and apply their understanding of the features and properties of 2D shapes and 3D objects

examples ›

Examples:

- identifying and explaining key features of architecture in Qing China

create and interpret 2D and 3D maps, models and diagrams

examples ›

Examples:

- creating a map showing the expansion of the Mongol Empire across Europe and Asia

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

visualise, describe and analyse the way shapes and objects are combined and positioned in the environment for different purposes

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining how the design of buildings in the local community reflect their use

create and interpret maps, models and diagrams using a range of mapping tools

examples ›

Examples:

- using digital mapping tools to show the movement of people in the transatlantic slave trade or convict transportation to Australia

Students:

display information using real objects or photographs and respond to questions about the information displayed

examples ›

Examples:

- displaying the most popular activity in the class using photographs

Level 1b is the starting point for this sub-element

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

recognise how to ask and answer simple data questions and interpret data in drawings or picture graphs

examples ›

Examples:

- asking class members which football team they support and recording this information using the team logos

recognise that some events might or might not happen

examples ›

Examples:

- recognising that it might or might not rain tomorrow

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

collect and describe data on a relevant issue based on one variable and display as lists, tables or picture graphs

examples ›

Examples:

- construct column graphs and picture graphs to represent the amount of water wasted by a dripping tap over a week

identify and describe familiar events that involve chance

examples ›

Examples:

- discussing and using the language of chance to describe the likelihood of events such as ‘will’, ‘won’t’ and ‘might’

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

collect record and display data as tables, diagrams, picture graphs and column graphs

examples ›

Examples:

- presenting evidence about the foods eaten by animals in a column graph

describe possible outcomes from chance experiments using informal chance language and recognising variations in results

examples ›

Examples:

- understanding and using terms denoting the likelihood of events, including colloquial terms such as ‘no way’, ‘for sure’

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

collect, compare, describe and interpret data as 2-way tables, double column graphs and sector graphs, including from digital media

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing and discussing line graphs about pulse rates when at rest and after activity

describe chance events and compare observed outcomes with predictions using numerical representations such as a 75% chance of rain or 50/50 chance of snow

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing and discussing the difference between predicted data and evidence when explaining the outcomes of an investigation

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

compare, interpret and assess the effectiveness of different data displays of the same information

examples ›

Examples:

- using secondary data to investigate changes in the mean and median rainfalls and water consumption in different locations
- choosing the most effective data display to compare mean and median rainfalls and water consumption in different locations and justifying choice of display

describe and explain why the actual results of chance events are not always the same as expected results

examples ›

Examples:

- predicting and comparing the outcomes of plant-cloning techniques in agriculture

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

explain the likelihood of multiple events occurring together by giving examples of situations when they might happen

examples ›

Examples:

- rolling two die and determining the probability of both displaying the same numbered face

Students:

sequence familiar actions and events in a variety of ways

examples ›

Examples:

- associating familiar activities with times of the day or days of the week using pictorial, written or technology formats

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

measure by comparing objects and indicate if these measurements are the same or different

examples ›

sequence familiar actions and events using the everyday language of time

examples ›

Examples:

- retelling a familiar story or sorting pictures from a familiar event into time order

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

estimate, measure and order using direct and indirect comparisons and informal units to collect and record information about shapes and objects

examples ›

Examples:

- using informal measures to record observations, compare masses of objects using a balance scale, measure the heights of plants in hand spans

read digital and analogue clocks to the half and quarter hour, sequence events by months and seasons and identify a date on a calendar

examples ›

Examples:

- developing a list for celebrating class birthdays

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

read digital and analogue clocks to the minute, convert between hours and minutes, use 'am' and 'pm', and use calendars to locate and compare time events

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating how many hours are spent at school in the month of July

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

convert between 12- and 24-hour systems to solve time problems, interpret and use timetables from print and digital sources

examples ›

Examples:

- working out how long it would take to get from home to the airport by bus or train

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

use 12- and 24-hour systems within a single time zone to solve time problems, and place personal and family events on an extended time scale

examples ›

Examples:

- recording the correct time when creating a new event in a social media website

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

solve complex problems involving surface area and volume of prisms and cylinders and composite solids

examples ›

Examples:

- working out how much space is taken up by kitchen cupboards in a kitchen design and the area of remaining walls that will need to be painted

use 12- and 24-hour systems within a multiple time zone to solve time problems, use large and small timescales in complex contexts and place historical and scientific events on an extended time scale

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating the correct time differences before phoning an overseas friend

Students:

- demonstrate concepts of counting using every day experiences

examples ›

Examples:

- showing anticipation that something will happen on the count of 1, 2, 3

- recognise the effects of adding to and taking away from a collection of objects

examples ›

Examples:

- recognising that a pile of books gets bigger when adding to it

- identify situations that involve the use of money

examples ›

Examples:

- using pictures of the local community to identify places where money can be used

Students:

- recognise simple patterns in everyday contexts

examples ›

Examples:

- recognising patterns in games, music, artwork

Students:

- recognise a ‘whole’ and ‘parts of a whole’ within everyday contexts

examples ›

Examples:

- separating objects or dividing materials into non-equal parts

- Level 1b is the starting point for this sub-element

Students:

- sort or match objects according to their features

examples ›

Examples:

- sorting objects by features of shape, size,colour and function

- demonstrate awareness of position of self and objects in relation to everyday contexts

examples ›

Examples:

- following actions to a song or dance

Students:

- display information using real objects or photographs and respond to questions about the information displayed

examples ›

Examples:

- displaying the most popular activity in the class using photographs

- Level 1b is the starting point for this sub-element

Students:

- sequence familiar actions and events in a variety of ways

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

- connect and order number names, numerals and groups of objects using numbers up to two digits

examples ›

Examples:

- solve everyday addition and share stories

examples ›

Examples:

- modelling a number story on a favourite book or multimedia presentation

- recognise the different value of coins and notes in the Australian monetary system

examples ›

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

- describe and continue patterns

examples ›

Examples:

- continuing simple patterns using three different colours or repeating a pattern in music

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

- recognise that a whole object can be divided into equal parts

examples ›

Examples:

- fold or cut a shape into equal parts

- identify quantities such as more, less and the same in everyday comparisons

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

- sort and name simple 2D shapes and 3D objects

examples ›

Examples:

- grouping 2D shapes and 3D objects by their features colour and materials

- follow directions to demonstrate understanding of common position words and movements

examples ›

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

- recognise how to ask and answer simple data questions and interpret data in drawings or picture graphs

examples ›

Examples:

- recognise that some events might or might not happen

examples ›

Examples:

- recognising that it might or might not rain tomorrow

Typically by the end of Foundation Year, students:

- measure by comparing objects and indicate if these measurements are the same or different

examples ›

- sequence familiar actions and events using the everyday language of time

examples ›

Examples:

- retelling a familiar story or sorting pictures from a familiar event into time order

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

- model, represent, order and use numbers up to four digits

examples ›

Examples:

- estimating growth of living things and representing prediction by making a chart

- estimate the solution to a problem and then calculate the answer

examples ›

- identify and use combinations of coins and notes for simple purchases

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

- identify, describe and create everyday patterns

examples ›

Examples:

- creating a pattern based on the petal structure of a flower

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

- visualise and describe halves and quarters

examples ›

- solve problems using halves and quarters

examples ›

Examples:

- using kitchen measuring equipment to show 2 half cup measures can be used instead of a 1 cup measure

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

- identify, sort and describe common 2D shapes and 3D objects

examples ›

- give and follow directions on maps and diagrams of familiar locations

examples ›

Examples:

- using the language of position and movement to direct a friend to a new location

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

- collect and describe data on a relevant issue based on one variable and display as lists, tables or picture graphs

examples ›

Examples:

- identify and describe familiar events that involve chance

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 2, students:

- estimate, measure and order using direct and indirect comparisons and informal units to collect and record information about shapes and objects

examples ›

Examples:

- read digital and analogue clocks to the half and quarter hour, sequence events by months and seasons and identify a date on a calendar

examples ›

Examples:

- developing a list for celebrating class birthdays

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

- model, represent, order and use numbers up to five digits

examples ›

Examples:

- estimating the quantity of supplies for the First Fleet

- estimate a solution to a problem and then check the solution by recalling addition, subtraction, multiplication and division facts

examples ›

Examples:

- estimate the change from simple purchases

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

- identify and describe trends in everyday patterns

examples ›

Examples:

- creating a pattern that could be used to produce a mosaic

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

- visualise, describe and order tenths, hundredths, 1-place and 2-place decimals

examples ›

Examples:

- putting the amounts of money raised by different classes in a school fundraiser into order

- solve problems using equivalent fractions for tenths, hundredths, 1-place and 2-place decimals

examples ›

Examples:

- finding the time difference between the fastest and slowest times for a class Beep test

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

- visualise, sort, identify and describe symmetry, shapes and angles in the environment

examples ›

Examples:

- recording the angles of the shots hit by a batsman in a cricket match

- interpret information, locate positions and describe routes on maps and diagrams using simple scales, legends and directional language

examples ›

Examples:

- creating and labelling a diagram showing the location of historical features in the local community

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

- collect record and display data as tables, diagrams, picture graphs and column graphs

examples ›

Examples:

- presenting evidence about the foods eaten by animals in a column graph

- describe possible outcomes from chance experiments using informal chance language and recognising variations in results

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 4, students:

- read digital and analogue clocks to the minute, convert between hours and minutes, use 'am' and 'pm', and use calendars to locate and compare time events

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating how many hours are spent at school in the month of July

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

- identify, describe and use numbers larger than one million

examples ›

Examples:

- solve problems and check calculations using efficient mental and written strategies

examples ›

- create simple financial plans, budgets and cost predictions

examples ›

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

- identify and describe pattern rules and relationships that help to identify trends

examples ›

Examples:

- survey dates in a local cemetery to find clues about patterns of settlement

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

- visualise, describe and order equivalent fractions, decimals and simple percentages

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining how to make a drink using 20% fruit, 30% lemonade and 50% fruit juice

- solve problems using equivalent fractions, decimals and simple percentages

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

- visualise, sort, describe and compare the features of objects such as prisms and pyramids in the environment

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining why some angles are used more frequently in built environments than others

- identify and describe routes and locations, using grid reference systems and directional language such as north or north east

examples ›

Examples:

- using a street map to describe how to locate a friend’s house

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

- collect, compare, describe and interpret data as 2-way tables, double column graphs and sector graphs, including from digital media

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing and discussing line graphs about pulse rates when at rest and after activity

- describe chance events and compare observed outcomes with predictions using numerical representations such as a 75% chance of rain or 50/50 chance of snow

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 6, students:

- convert between 12- and 24-hour systems to solve time problems, interpret and use timetables from print and digital sources

examples ›

Examples:

- working out how long it would take to get from home to the airport by bus or train

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

- compare, order and use positive and negative numbers to solve everyday problems

examples ›

Examples:

- recording different boiling and freezing points in an experiment

- solve complex problems by estimating and calculating using efficient mental, written and digital strategies

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating the running costs of a range of household appliances with different energy ratings

- identify and justify ‘best value for money’ decisions

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing different phone plans and presenting a reason for purchasing the chosen plan

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

- identify trends using number rules and relationships

examples ›

Examples:

- using fuel consumptions vs. distance data to determine patterns of a vehicle’s fuel consumption

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

- visualise and describe the proportions of percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- solve problems using simple percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- comparing and contrasting trends in migration from Asian countries to Australia since World War II

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

- visualise, describe and apply their understanding of the features and properties of 2D shapes and 3D objects

examples ›

Examples:

- identifying and explaining key features of architecture in Qing China

- create and interpret 2D and 3D maps, models and diagrams

examples ›

Examples:

- creating a map showing the expansion of the Mongol Empire across Europe and Asia

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

- compare, interpret and assess the effectiveness of different data displays of the same information

examples ›

Examples:

- using secondary data to investigate changes in the mean and median rainfalls and water consumption in different locations
- choosing the most effective data display to compare mean and median rainfalls and water consumption in different locations and justifying choice of display

- describe and explain why the actual results of chance events are not always the same as expected results

examples ›

Examples:

- predicting and comparing the outcomes of plant-cloning techniques in agriculture

Typically by the end of Year 8, students:

- use 12- and 24-hour systems within a single time zone to solve time problems, and place personal and family events on an extended time scale

examples ›

Examples:

- recording the correct time when creating a new event in a social media website

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

- use different ways to represent very large and very small numbers including scientific notation

examples ›

Examples:

- solve and model problems involving complex data by estimating and calculating using a variety of efficient mental, written and digital strategies

examples ›

Examples:

- using statistics to predict trends such as the use of social media in different age groups

- evaluate financial plans to support specific financial goals

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

- explain how the practical application of patterns can be used to identify trends

examples ›

Examples:

- using mobile phone bills to identify usage trends

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

- illustrate and order relationships for fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating and plotting the savings made on a variable interest rate mortgage for the past 5 years

- solve problems involving fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

- visualise, describe and analyse the way shapes and objects are combined and positioned in the environment for different purposes

examples ›

Examples:

- explaining how the design of buildings in the local community reflect their use

- create and interpret maps, models and diagrams using a range of mapping tools

examples ›

Examples:

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

- explain the likelihood of multiple events occurring together by giving examples of situations when they might happen

examples ›

Examples:

- rolling two die and determining the probability of both displaying the same numbered face

Typically by the end of Year 10, students:

- solve complex problems involving surface area and volume of prisms and cylinders and composite solids

examples ›

Examples:

- use 12- and 24-hour systems within a multiple time zone to solve time problems, use large and small timescales in complex contexts and place historical and scientific events on an extended time scale

examples ›

Examples:

- calculating the correct time differences before phoning an overseas friend